By Darwin V. Ellis
The 1st variation of this booklet demystified the method of good log research for college students, researchers and practitioners. within the twenty years considering the fact that, the has replaced tremendously: technical staffs are smaller, and hydrocarbons are more durable to find, quantify, and convey. New drilling concepts have engendered new size units integrated into the drilling string. company restructuring and the "graying" of the team have prompted an absence in technical competence curious about the hunt and exploitation of petroleum. The up-to-date second variation experiences logging size know-how constructed within the final 20 years, and expands the petrophysical purposes of the measurements.
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As the temperature increases, the kinetic energy of the molecules helps to overcome the molecular forces so that viscosity decreases. One simple model  relates the probability of moving a molecule (of the somewhat structured fluid) by viscous flow, to its vibrational energy. It predicts an exponential dependence of viscosity on temperature. 22) where C is characteristic of a given liquid. 4 SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL Spontaneous potential was shown in the last chapter to be of considerable practical use in the identification of permeable zones.
2000 Track 2 Track 1 Rxo RILM 2000 Track 3 Rt Fig. 8 The induction log heading and schematic of the formation, with three zones corresponding approximately to the simultaneous electrical measurements of different depths of investigation. for finding clean sections was that the SP becomes less negative for increasing shale, so that deflections of the SP trace to the right will correspond to increasing shale content. The GR curve, as it is scaled in increasing activity (in American Petroleum Institute (API) units) to the right, will also produce curve deflections to the right for increasing shale content.
In the next step, the resistivity readings in the four selected zones are examined. These curves are contained in the second track of Fig. 18. The first thing that is obvious is that the resistivity readings are roughly constant within the delineated zones, except in zones C and D, where a difference occurs between the lower and upper portions. 0 ohm-m in the upper portion. A similar delineation can be made for zone D. A first estimate of fluid content can be established by looking at the lowest resistivity values and identifying them as water, as has been done in the figure.