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Many of these themes will also be discussed in this present book (see Part Two). g. Hutchinson, 1957; Wetzel, 1983): (a) the oxygen status, including the organic compounds affecting the oxygen budget; (b) the nutrient (phosphorus and nitrogen) status; (c) the acidity status; (d) the harmful substances, including heavy metals and a large number of organic compounds. 1). Reliable research and monitoring of lakes, especially the assessment of chemical and biological results, always require relevant information about the thermal variations that take place during one year in the lake.
2 NUTRIENT CYCLING AND NITROGEN RETENTION The quantitative assessment of the nitrogen cycle in forested ecosystems is difficult, because of the many gaseous, aqueous and particulate forms of nitrogen, and the large number of complex pathways involved. Nitrogen exists in inorganic and organic forms in both the solution and the solid phases of soils. ). 1. More than 90% of the N in soils is present in organic forms not available to plants. 1). The process of denitrification (anaerobic NO, reduction to N2 or N20) in forest soils has received increasing attention in recent years, since this process might balance some of the N inputs.
37 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 .. (_‘)2000 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 1 INTRODUCTION Nitrogen is a limiting element for terrestrial and marine production. Human activities such as combustion and agriculture, as well as growing populations, have severely impacted the global nitrogen cycle over the past decades. Today, human conversion of N2 to more reactive N species, the global ‘fertilization experiment’, is promoting a wide range of environmental problems; from the effects on atmospheric chemistry, to acidification of freshwater systems, and to marine eutrophication.