By Steven I. Wilkinson
Why do ethnic riots get away whilst and the place they do? Why do a little governments attempt to hinder ethnic riots whereas others do not anything or maybe perform the violence? during this booklet Steven I. Wilkinson makes use of newly gathered info on Hindu-Muslim riots, socio-economic components and aggressive politics in India to check his conception that riots are fomented for you to win elections and that governments make a decision even if to prevent them or now not in keeping with the most probably electoral fee of doing so. He reveals that electoral components account for many of the state-level edition in Hindu-Muslim riots: explaining for instance why riots happened in Gujarat in 2002 yet now not in lots of different states the place militants attempted to foment violence. the overall electoral thought he develops for India is prolonged to eire, Malaysia and Romania as Wilkinson exhibits that related political elements encourage ethnic violence in lots of diverse international locations.
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Additional resources for Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India
465. Shakir, Islam in Indian Politics, p. 47; Ashgar Ali Engineer, “Communal Violence in Kanpur,” Economic and Political Weekly, February 26, 1994, pp. 473–74. Engineer, “The Causes of Communal Riots,” p. 36. S. Vijayagopalan, Economic Status of Handicraft Artisans (New Delhi: National Council for Applied Economic Research, 1993), p. 9. 5%); cotton rugs (67%); zari (gold thread/brocade) and zari goods (89%); and wooden wares (72%). Ibid. For similar ﬁgures on Muslim Chikan workers, see Eighth Annual Report of the Minorities Commission (1986) (New Delhi: Controller of Publications, 1989), p.
The mass migration of South Asians to other countries and the spread of global news media have also increased the likelihood that riots in India will lead to violence against Hindus far from India’s borders. 39 Plan of the Book I begin in Chapter 2 by examining the town-level causes of Hindu-Muslim riots and the broader question of intrastate variation in ethnic violence. Using systematic town-level data on riots and socioeconomic variables from India’s most populous state, Uttar Pradesh, I show that the probability of whether a town will have a Hindu-Muslim riot is highly related to its level of electoral competition, even once we hold factors such as a town’s demographic balance or its past record of Hindu-Muslim violence constant.
171–72. See “The Burning of Bombay,” Sunday, January 24–30, 1993, pp. 28–37; Dilip Thakore, “Paying for Socialism,” Sunday, January 24–30, 1993, pp. ” Modern Asian Studies 34, no. 2 (2000), p. 301. , Communal Riots in Post-Independence India (Hyderabad: Sangam Books, 1984), pp. 33–41; Amiya Kumar Bagchi, “Predatory Commercialization and Communalism in India,” in S. , Anatomy of a Confrontation (New Delhi: Penguin, 1990), pp. 193–218; Moin Shakir, Islam in Indian Politics (New Delhi: Ajanta Publications, 1983), pp.