By Konstantyn Kononenko, Roman Smal-Stocki, Lev E. Dobriansky
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Additional resources for Ukraine and Russia: A History of the Economic Relations Between Ukraine and Russia, 1654-1917
The Ukrainian peasantry was by no means homogeneous in the social and legal sense. It was more varied than the Russian. Besides the Cossacks who had not lost their personal freedom and right to own land, and the insignificant number of free 25 An analogous situation could be observed in Finland after its conquest by Russia. Finland’s social order was without comparison more liberal and democratic than Russia’s. Toward Industrial Capitalism 17 peasants, there were also many alien colonists in Ukraine, who were free and their own masters.
In the Right Bank Ukraine there were twentysix uprisings between 1845 and 1849. Escape was another form of reaction against the landlords’ oppression, the flights frequent ly assuming mass proportions. Most of the escaping peasants went to Southern Ukraine, to the Don and Kuban regions where the descendants of Cossacks, whose Zaporozhian Host was ruined by the Russian Government in 1775 had found refuge. ”21 This thirst for freedom and for throwing off the yoke of serfdom imposed by Russia never died among the peasants, and it kept all life at a point of high tension, decidedly influencing relations between masters and serfs.
116. Toward Industrial Capitalism 15 of 1833 without the serfs family, but it became permissible aft er 1841 to purchase serfs for resettlement on other land. The eus'tom was for a serf to work for three days in a week for his master, and the rest of the time for himself, but the ukase of April 5, 1797 provided that such a division was only advisory, and not mandatory. In fact, the landlord himself would deter mine the number of days of weekly servitude, sometimes the entire week. Complete enforcement of all these rules of servitude through out Ukraine, was impossible due to historical circumstances.