By John Kampfner
From the Roman Republic to Roman Abramovich, a tiny variety of the super-rich have held sway over the economics and politics in their eras. How they made their cash - by means of ability, good fortune or ruthless selection - turns into inappropriate as soon as they have reached the pinnacle. The gadgets of wish can have replaced, however the principles have stayed an identical. For the slaves, concubines, gold and castles of historical and medieval occasions, learn deepest jets, vacation islands and soccer golf equipment. Does the beginning of the twenty-first century mark a turning aspect or does historical past exhibit us that the richest 0.01 in keeping with cent will continuously triumph? From impressive stories of Norman knights, Malian kings and Spanish conquistadores to present-day sheikhs, web giants, oligarchs and bankers, this can be the compelling tale of the increase and upward push of the very filthy rich worldwide over the last thousand years.
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The company directors found the tactics of their Governor General, Jan Pieters zoon Coen, a little too brutal and vulgar for their taste. But the enjoyment of riches such young adventurers brought outweighed any ethical concerns they might fleetingly have had. A little over a hundred years later, Robert Clive turned the East India Company into a dominant force in global trade, enshrining British rule over the subcontinent for two centuries. Clive’s fondness for the baubles of wealth and his failure to show contrition in Parliament when events transpired against him were his undoing.
A number of women are also moving quickly up China’s rich lists. According to Forbes’ 2014 billionaires list, of the 268 newcomers, 42 are women – a single-year record. 9 per cent of all the globe’s billionaires – had a meaningful hand in building their own fortunes, as opposed to inheriting wealth. Other new billionaires to watch are Nigeria’s Folorunsho Alakija, who moved from fashion design to oil prospecting, and Denise Coates, a Briton who runs an online betting company. ’ The object of its opprobrium was Bernard Arnault, France’s richest man, who had just declared he was leaving for Belgium in protest at the 75 per cent tax rate imposed by the Socialist government.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of the publisher. The publisher is not responsible for websites (or their content) that are not owned by the publisher. uk To my parents Betty and Fred Contents Copyright Dedication Prologue PART ONE Then 1 Marcus Licinius Crassus – Scandal, fire and war 2 Alain Le Roux – Cleansing the land 3 Mansa Musa – Travelling show 4 Cosimo de’ Medici – Art, money and conscience 5 Francisco Pizarro – Conquest and plunder 6 Louis XIV and Akhenaten – Sun kings 7 Jan Pieterszoon Coen and Robert Clive – To the traders, the spoils 8 The Krupps – Manufacturing patriotism 9 Andrew Carnegie – Darwin and the robbers 10 Mobutu Sese Seko – The walking bank vault PART TWO Now 11 The sheikhs 12 The oligarchs 13 The geeks 14 The bankers Conclusion Acknowledgements Notes Bibliography Index Prologue No man is rich enough to buy back his past.