By Martha Gardner
The characteristics of a Citizen strains the applying of U.S. immigration and naturalization legislations to ladies from the 1870s to the past due Sixties. Like no different publication prior to, it explores how racialized, gendered, and historic anxieties formed our present understandings of the histories of immigrant ladies. The e-book takes us from the 1st federal immigration regulations opposed to Asian prostitutes within the 1870s to the immigration "reform" measures of the overdue Nineteen Sixties. all through this era, issues reminiscent of morality, kinfolk, marriage, poverty, and nationality dependent historic debates over women's immigration and citizenship. on the border, ladies immigrants, immigration officers, social provider prone, and federal judges argued the grounds on which ladies will be integrated in the country. As interview transcripts and court docket records show, while, the place, and the way ladies have been welcomed into the rustic trusted their racial prestige, their roles within the relatives, and their paintings talents. Gender and race mattered. The ebook emphasizes the comparative nature of racial ideologies during which the inclusion of 1 crew frequently got here with the exclusion of one other. It explores how U.S. officers insisted at the hyperlink among race and gender in knowing America's strange model of nationalism. It additionally serves as a social historical past of the legislations, detailing women's reviews and techniques, successes and screw ups, to belong to the state.
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Extra resources for The Qualities of a Citizen: Women, Immigration, and Citizenship, 1870-1965
Metcalf, Secretary Department of Commerce and Labor, to Miss Margarita Lake, 17 March 1905, in Katsuru Iki, INS ﬁle 52424/13 (1905–); RCO, entry 9, box 107, 53434/ 1–52424/13-C; INS, DC, RG85; NA, DC. 22 In its reporting on Kanjiro’s case, the San Francisco Bulletin painted a sympathetic picture of divided love, and of a young bride’s fears and apprehensions. This article appeared in the San Francisco Bulletin of 23 March 1905; see Katsuru Iki, INS ﬁles 52424/13 (1905–); RCO, entry 9, box 107: 53434/1–52424/13-C; INS, DC, RG85; NA, DC.
Questioned separately, husband and wife were asked to substantiate their marriage by providing key facts about the marriage ceremony, including the name of the church, priest, and godparents present. When interviewed, Francisa Cardona responded as best she could: Q: What was the name of the priest who married you? A: I do not remember. In evaluating the record, the supervising inspector for El Paso cautioned his staff to be more rigorous in future. 8 These requirements bear a striking resemblance to those required of arriving Japanese picture brides in the early twentieth century.
Kapolo. Kapolo’s husband had emigrated ahead of his family, and Kapolo and her three children followed eight years later. En route, her daughter Mary’s measles developed into nephritis (an inﬂammation of the kidneys), and the four were detained at Ellis Island. Mary was held for treatment at the Ellis Island hospital for four months, and after multiple hearings by the Board of Special Inquiry, Kapolo and her two sons were allowed to proceed to Chicago. Edith Abott, Immigration: Select Documents and Case Records (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1924), 303–307.