By Rudolph P. Matthee
В этой книге анализируется экономическое, социальное и политическое значение торговли шелком в Сефевидском Иране. Внимание уделено, главным образом, четырем аспектам этой торговли: роли шелка в Иранской торговой политике, взаимодействию между чиновниками и иностранными торговцами, маршрутам транспортровки шелка, а также влиянию экономических и социальных проблем на крах режима в 1720-ых.Образцы сканов:
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But the crux of complex systems theory is that agents (elements or subsystems which make up systems) are characterised by microdiversity in behaviour. Individual agents are at diﬀerent locations and have diﬀerent experiences. Instead of average behaviour, diﬀerences between individual agents and local contexts lead to variation in behaviour. 2. : 153). This means that the lower level generates variety, while the higher level exerts selective pressure. The consequence is that multiple variation and selection process occur in a nested hierarchy, an idea already advanced by Campbell (1974).
A fifth factor relates to changes in cultural values and expectations, or broad political ideologies. Some contributors in Summerton (1994) propose particular dynamics to understand changes in LTS. Von Meier (1994) sketches a possible future transformation of the electricity system, whereby new technologies are first introduced in the existing electricity system to deal with particular problems (for example, photovoltaic solar cells, wind turbines, solar thermal systems, gas turbines and fuel cells).
Incumbent technological systems are often stabilised by existing institutions, for example, favourable legislation. The replacement of existing systems is thus likely to involve institutional change. But how does this occur? It may involve struggles in the political arena, and changes in policy instruments and regulations. The third issue is the emergence of prime actors or system builders. 1 37 Examples of factors leading to a new technology being repelled Actors and markets Poorly articulated demand Established technology characterised by increasing returns Local search processes (cognitive routines which blind engineers to alternatives) Market control by incumbents Networks Poor connectivity Wrong guidance with respect to future markets Institutions Legislative failures Failures in the educational system Skewed capital market Underdeveloped organisational and political power of new entrants Source: Jacobsson and Johnson (2000: 631).