Download The Fontana Economic History of Europe, vol. 4, part 1: The by Carlo M. Cipolla PDF

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By Carlo M. Cipolla

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Additional info for The Fontana Economic History of Europe, vol. 4, part 1: The Emergence of Industrial Societies

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The same holds true of numerous other institutions. The appendix (pp. 223-234) which Menger devotes to law very plainly shows that he held there were ponderable organic elements in the growth of law also. And his brief discussion of the rise of "localities" or communities and states shows that he has an organic outlook on these as well. There is no special need here to discuss his views on these matters from the point of view of a realistic anthropology or history, for, no matter what anthropological or historical detail might reveal about "beginnings" in, say, money or law, such detail would not quite get at what he was concerned with when he considered '''origins,'' and it would not be central to his main objects in any case.

But there are cases in which transmutation mechanisms are even more rudimentary. Thus, where individual couples desire and have children but there is no contemplation of the "continuance of the personnel of the society" as a goal or desideratum, conversion from individually realized object to social outcome or effect is dependent on simple additivity. One female after another gives birth, a certain level of births is reached, and (other things equal) "continuance" is ensured by the sum of the individual births.

In the field of linguistic research, of political science, and of jurisprudence new orientations of research had come to prevail and had led to results which had not been valued according to merit by the scholarly world and public opinion, particularly in Germany, but had been considerably overestimated, at least temporarily. How obvious was the notion of applying these efforts to our field of knowledge! To become famous as a reformer of political economy there was scarcely need of anything more than a lively sense for the analogies of research.

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