By SEWARD Desmond
The Plantagenets reigned over England longer than the other family members - from Henry II, to Richard III. 4 kings have been murdered, got here just about deposition and one other was once killed in a conflict by means of rebels. Shakespeare wrote performs approximately six of them, additional entrenching them within the nationwide Myth.
Based on significant modern assets and up to date learn, acclaimed historian Desmond Seward presents the 1st readable assessment of the entire remarkable dynasty, in a single quantity.
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L. a. restauration par Auguste de los angeles collégialité à los angeles tête de l'État ne constitue pas le moindre des paradoxes d un régime qui reposait par ailleurs sur le charisme du pnnceps. Il y avait là une expérience de gouvernement qui avait une originalité et qui mérite une étude d ensemble. l. a. permanence au début de l'Empire de l. a. thought de collega est un phénomène bien attesté qui justifie l'attention portée à l'analyse des pouvoirs exercés dans un cadre collégial; ce qu'il est d'usage de désigner par los angeles «co-régence » n'est donc pas une fiction juridique et s'apparente à une réalité du droit public.
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10 2 The Eagle – Henry II The painting shows an eagle with four of its young perching on it, one on each wing with a third on its back, tearing the parent with beaks and talons, while a fourth just as big as the others stands on its neck, waiting for a chance to peck out its eyes Gerald of Wales1 The first campaign of Henry fitz-Empress In spring 1147, just after his fourteenth birthday, a red-headed, freckle-faced boy landed at Wareham in Dorset, to wage war on the king who had stolen his heritage.
Courtiers dreaded these crossings in tiny, clinker-built transports, particularly during winter. So did the king, who had his own ship, the Esnecca (‘Sea-Snake’), and went to confession before embarking – sailing on lucky feast days such as Candlemas or postponing a voyage because of an ill omen. Such fears are understandable. In March 1170, 400 courtiers, including the royal physician, were drowned en route from Normandy. On land, Henry lived on horseback as his realm stretched from the Tweed to the Pyrenees, from the Shannon to the verge of the Ile de France.
Recovering land stolen during Stephen’s reign was solved by the sheriffs issuing writs: one writ ordered the offender to give it back – if he refused, another summoned twelve neighbours to declare on oath who was the rightful owner. The main document setting out these reforms was the Assize of Clarendon, drawn up early in 1166, and supplemented a few years later by the Assizes of Northampton. 12 After Clarendon, annual royal income rose from £13,000 to over £20,000, largely thanks to fines levied under the new system.