Download The clinical use of blood: handbook by World Health Organization PDF

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By World Health Organization

Summarizes the data supplied within the module, The medical Use of Blood, and has been produced for speedy reference by means of clinicians who have the desire to make pressing judgements on transfusion.

summary: Summarizes the data supplied within the module, The medical Use of Blood, and has been produced for fast reference by means of clinicians who have the desire to make pressing judgements on transfusion

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3 If no clinical improvement within 30 minutes or if signs and symptoms worsen, treat as Category 2. Adverse effects of transfusion CATEGORY 1: MILD REACTIONS CATEGORY 2: MODERATELY SEVERE REACTIONS Immediate management 1 Stop the transfusion. Replace the infusion set and keep IV line open with normal saline. 2 Notify the doctor responsible for the patient and the blood bank immediately. 3 Send blood unit with infusion set, freshly collected urine and new blood samples (1 clotted and 1 anticoagulated) from vein opposite infusion site with appropriate request form to blood bank for laboratory investigations.

61 Adverse effects of transfusion Guidelines for the recognition and management of acute transfusion reactions CATEGORY 1: MILD REACTIONS Signs Symptoms ■ Localized cutaneous ■ Pruritus reactions: (itching) — Urticaria — Rash Possible cause ■ Hypersensitivity (mild) CATEGORY 2: MODERATELY SEVERE REACTIONS Signs ■ Flushing ■ Urticaria ■ Rigors ■ Fever ■ Restlessness ■ Tachycardia 62 Symptoms ■ Anxiety ■ Pruritus ■ Palpitations ■ Mild dyspnoea ■ Headache Possible cause ■ Hypersensitivity (moderate–severe) ■ Febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions: — Antibodies to white blood cells, platelets — Antibodies to proteins, including IgA ■ Possible contamination with pyrogens and/or bacteria Immediate management 1 Slow the transfusion.

12 Check the identity on: ■ Patient ■ Blood product ■ Patient’s documentation. 13 Administer the blood product. 14 Record in the patient’s notes: ■ Type and volume of each product transfused ■ Unique donation number of each unit transfused ■ Blood group of each unit transfused ■ Time at which the transfusion of each unit commenced ■ Signature of the person administering the blood. 15 Monitor the patient before, during and on completion of the transfusion. 16 Record the completion of the transfusion.

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