By Zuozhen Liu
This ebook investigates China's calls for for the repatriation of chinese language cultural relics 'lost' in the course of the country's smooth heritage. It addresses major learn questions: Can the unique proprietors, or their rightful successors, of cultural items looted, stolen, or illicitly exported ahead of the adoption of the 1954 Hague conference and the 1970 UNESCO conference reclaim their cultural items pursuant to treatments supplied through overseas or nationwide legislations? And what are the philosphical, moral, and cultural concerns of id underlying the foreign conventions maintaining cultural gadgets and claims made for repatriating them? the 1st a part of the ebook explores present optimistic felony regimes, whereas the second one half makes a speciality of the philosphical, moral, and cultural concerns concerning repatriation of cultural items. including seven chapters and an advent, it outlines the lack of chinese language cultural relics in smooth heritage and the normative framework for the security of cultural background. It offers case experiences designed to evaluate the potential for looking felony treatments for restitution less than modern felony regimes and examines the cultural and moral concerns underpinning the foreign conventions retaining cultural historical past and claims for the repatriation of cultural historical past. It additionally discusses problems with cultural id, the proper to cultural identification and background, multiculturalism, the politics of popularity, cosmopolitanism, the ideal to cultural history, and different similar matters. The concluding bankruptcy solutions the 2 study questions and gives feedback for destiny research.
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Extra resources for The Case for Repatriating China’s Cultural Objects
2 The ﬁrst framework deals with destruction and looting during times of war and belligerent occupation. 3 The ﬁrst section of this chapter discusses the evolution of rules treating cultural objects in the event of armed conflict. 4 The second section of this chapter discuses the legal framework regarding illicit trafﬁcking of cultural objects, elaborating upon two important international conventions as well as Chinese domestic legislation from the late Qing period. This chapter concludes with an exploration of ethical guidelines regarding cultural Francesco Francioni and James Gordley state that ‘it is safe to say that cultural heritage law is a discrete branch of international law, and at the same time it constitutes an evolving dimension of many areas of international law’.
Based on unpublished family papers and archival and museum documents, Dong argues Menzies’ motivation was religious and academic rather than monetary; given his strong religious motivation, Menzies collected items in a principled and ethical manner. 90 Today most of Menzies’ collection is held by the Royal Ontario Museum. 91 The most recent studies show approximately one hundred thirty thousand pieces of inscribed oracle bones have been unearthed in the last hundred years. 92 Unlike the Dunhuang manuscripts and the oracle bones, most Chinese lost cultural relics, even the most sought after national treasures, have no detailed provenance.
2 Conclusion In modern Chinese history, the sovereignty of China was often encroached upon and at other times the Chinese governments failed to protect Chinese cultural heritage from both internal and external challenges. Although to critics the reiteration of cultural loss in modern Chinese history merely satisﬁes the ideological needs of post-imperial Chinese governments to maintain China’s independence and unity, it is incontrovertible that China suffered a huge loss of cultural objects via wartime plunder, including the sacking of the Old Summer Palace, the plunder of Beijing, and Japanese pillage during its aggression against China.