Download The Apollo spacecraft : a chronology by National Aeronautics and Space Administration PDF

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By National Aeronautics and Space Administration

This fourth and ultimate quantity of the Apollo Spacecraft Chronology covers a interval of 8 and a part years, from January 21, 1966, via July thirteen, 1974. The occasions that came about in the course of that interval integrated all flight assessments of the Apollo spacecraft, in addition to the final 5 Gemini flights, the AS-204 coincidence, the AS-204 assessment Board actions, the Apollo Block II Redefinition initiatives, the manned Apollo flight application and its effects, in addition to extra use of the Apollo spacecraft within the Skylab missions. The manned flights of Apollo, scheduled to start in early 1967, have been behind schedule by means of the tragic twist of fate that happened on January 27, 1967, in the course of a simulated countdown for venture AS-204. a fireplace contained in the command module led to the deaths of the 3 best staff astronauts, Virgil I. Grissom, Edward H. White II, and Roger B. Chaffee. On January 28, 1967, the Apollo 204 overview Board used to be confirmed to enquire the twist of fate. It was resolute that motion will be initiated to lessen the group probability by means of putting off pointless detrimental stipulations that will imperil destiny operations. as a result, on April 27, a NASA activity Team-Block II Redefinition, CSM-was verified to supply enter on special layout, total caliber and reliability, try out and checkout, baseline specification, configuration keep an eye on, and schedules.

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Velocity and thrust requirements agreed well with those determined by the Lewis Research Center. ABMA was recommending a Saturn C-2 launch vehicle having a 2million-pound-thrust first stage, a 1-million-pound-thrust second stage, and a 200,000-pound-thrust third stage. Another launch vehicle six times larger than the Saturn C-2 was also being studied for direct ascent. ABMA was interested in obtaining a NASA contract to study the Saturn C-2 vehicle. Two approaches were being studied for the manned lunar landing, one refueling in earth orbit and the other assembling separately landed parcels on the moon for the return flight (lunar surface rendezvous).

In addition, Goett informed the Committee that the Vega had been eliminated as a possible booster for use in one of the intermediate steps leading to the lunar mission. The primary possibility for the earth satellite mission was now the first-generation Saturn and for the lunar flight the second-generation Saturn. Memorandum, Goett, Chairman, to the Research Steering Committee on Manned Space Flight, "Estimate of Weight of 'End Vehicle' for Lunar Soft Landing and Return Mission To Aid in Choice of Booster Configuration," November 19, 1959.

December 7 The Advanced Research Projects Agency ARPA and NASA requested the Army Ordnance Missile Command AOMC to prepare an engineering and cost study for a new Saturn configuration with a second stage of four 20,000-pound-thrust liquid-hydrogen and liquid-oxygen engines (later called the SIV stage) and a modified Centaur third stage using two of these engines later designated the S-V stage). AOMC was also asked to indicate what significant program improvements or acceleration could be achieved with an increase in Fiscal Year 1960 funding if provided late in the fiscal year.

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