By Roland Caulcutt (auth.)
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C) When we want to detect an increase in yield, how many batches do we need to inspect? 2 HAS THE YIELD INCREASED? 30. This figure was obtained by averaging the yield from many hundreds of batches produced during a two-year period when the production process was 52 Testing and estirnation: one sampIe operating satisfactorily. Not all the batches produced during this period were included when calculating the mean. A sm all number of batches were excluded because they were thought to be special cases.
This is a view that would have been shared by the late Japanese quality control guru Kaoru Ishikawa. In his book What is Total Quality Control? he lists the 'seven indispensable tools for quality improvement' : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) tally chart or check sheet histogram or dot plot Pareto chart cause and effect diagram scatter diagram control chart stratification. Ishikawa states quite clearly that all of these simple tools should be used by everyone in manufacturing industry. It may weil be true that widespread use of the 'seven tools' is one reason why Japanese companies have performed so weil in recent years.
The important point to note at this time is that stratification can be used with histograms, dot plots and other diagrams to reveal important features of a set of data. 7 A stratified dot plot form. Diagrams and tables are invaluable when reporting the results of empirical research. There is some truth in the saying 'A picture says more than a thousand words' but we must not underestimate the summary power of simple calculations. There are several measures of location and spread but the most commonly used are the me an and standard deviation.