By Lieven Vandelanotte
This ebook goals to supply a brand new, linguistically grounded typology of speech and inspiration illustration in English at the foundation of the systematic learn of deictic, syntactic and semantic homes of genuine examples drawn from literary in addition to non-literary sources.
In the realm past direct and oblique speech or proposal, ‘free oblique discourse’ has usually been implicitly handled as a residual class that may accommodate whatever that's neither one nor the opposite. This publication takes a clean examine the proof within the region of deixis, really via an in depth research of pronoun and correct identify use, and proposes to differentiate the extra character-oriented unfastened oblique sort from a narrator-oriented ‘distancing’ oblique sort, that's grammatically entirely based from the narrator’s deictic perspective. not like unfastened oblique representations, which coherently signify the character’s standpoint, the distancing oblique sort sees narrators appropriating personality discourse for his or her personal reasons, that could for example be ironic. The differences therefore drawn shed new gentle at the a lot debated ‘dual voice’ method of loose oblique discourse.
Included within the scope of this publication are subjectified makes use of of clauses comparable to i feel, which not basically construe a cognition strategy, yet fairly come to operate as hedges. Such speaker-encoding makes use of are argued to contain an interpersonal kind of constitution, now not according to complementation, while the non-subjectified instances obtain an interclausal complementation research which doesn't have recourse to the difficult inspiration of ‘reporting verb’.
This monograph is especially of curiosity to researchers and graduate scholars drawn to the syntax, semantics, and pragmatics of pronounced speech seen from a constructional standpoint.
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Additional resources for Speech and Thought Representation in English: A Cognitive-Functional Approach
McGregor 1997: 252) and abbreviated as RSS; the primary speech situation from which the other discourse gets to be represented will be called the current speech situation (CSS). As already indicated above, the main participants in the two speech situations will be referred to correspondingly as current speaker and represented speaker; simplifying matters one could liken the current and represented speaker, at least in the context of narratives, to the narrator and the character respectively. Because of the above considerations, the focus of this study will thus be on only part of the kinds of scales proposed by McHale (1978), Leech and lower in the sky, The Waves, Woolf 1972: 129 qtd.
I will briefly consider some of this evidence. First of all, in terms of semantics, it is in all types of STR the case that the ‘metaphenomenal’ status of the reported clause is conferred onto it by the reporting clause which identifies as a whole the represented speaker and the speech or thought act. While the reporting clause thus names the central participant(s) of the represented speech situation of which the interactive content is given in the reported clause, it also embodies the current speech situation through its own grounding (in terms of grammatical person and tense) vis-à-vis the current speaker’s here and now.
This type of behaviour is difficult to replicate with typical direct objects: And then he hit this: the burglar is marked, and *The, he hit next, burglar ungrammatical. ” What the differences in terms of affectedness and separability minimally demonstrate is that if a quoted clause is some sort of object of the verb, it certainly is not a prototypical direct object. In fact, the only kind of nominal object taken by say is a cognate object: whereas verbs such as buy and hit allow a wide variety of direct objects which are clearly affected by the processes of buying or hitting (5–6), reporting verbs like say and think (7– 8) only take maximally non-specific ‘slot fillers’ (things, it) or cognate objects (words, thoughts) which, if concatenated as in (7–8), produce slightly awkward results because their meaning largely overlaps: (5) (6) (7) (8) He bought a new computer, a digital camera, and a webcam.