By Giorgio C. Buttazzo
Preface 1: advent 1.1 simple terminology 1.2 From not easy to smooth real-time structures 1.3 offering aid for gentle real-time platforms 2: Overload administration 2.1 advent 2.2 Load definitions 2.3 Admission keep an eye on tools 2.4 functionality degradation equipment 2.5 provider model 2.6 task skipping 2.7 interval model three: Temporal safeguard 3.1 difficulties with out temporal security 3.2 delivering temporal safety 3.3 The GPS version 3.4 Proportional proportion scheduling 3.5 source reservation concepts 3.6 source reservations in dynamic precedence platforms 3.7 Temporal promises 3.8 source reservations in working method kernels four: Multi-thread purposes 4.1 The thread version 4.2 international techniques 4.3 Partition-based techniques 4.4 Concluding feedback and open difficulties five: Synchronization Protocols 5.1 Terminology and notation 5.2 Shared source in real-time structures 5.3 Synchronization protocols for tough real-time structures 5.4 Shared assets in smooth real-time platforms 5.5 Extending source reservation with the SRP 5.6 source constraints in dynamic structures 5.7 Concluding comments 6: source Reclaiming 6.1 issues of reservations 6.2 the money set of rules 6.3 The GRUB set of rules 6.4 other kinds of reclaiming 7: QoS administration 7.1 The QoS-based source allocation version 7.2 Static vs. dynamic source administration 7.3 Integrating layout and scheduling concerns 7.4 tender price version eight: suggestions Scheduling 8.1 Controlling the variety of overlooked points in time 8.2 Adaptive reservations 8.3 program point model 8.4 Workload estimators nine: Stochastic Scheduling 9.1 history and definitions 9.2 Statistical research of classical algorithms 9.3 Real-time queueing concept 9.4 Novel algorithms for stochastic scheduling 9.5 Reservations and stochastic warrantly References Index
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Additional info for Soft real-time systems: predictability vs. efficiency
This class includes those algorithms in which the load on the processor is controlled by an acceptance test executed at each task arrival. Typically, whenever a new task enters the system, a guarantee routine verifies the schedulability of the task set based on worst-case assumptions. If the task set is found schedulable, the new task is accepted in the ready queue; otherwise, it is rejected. Robust Scheduling. This class includes those algorithms that separate timing constraints and importance by considering two different policies: one for task acceptance and one for task rejection.
Once a task is accepted, the algorithm guarantees that it will complete by its deadline (assuming that no task will exceed its estimated worst-case computation time). This scheme, however, does not take task importance into account and, during transient overloads, always rejects the newly arrived task, regardless of its value. In certain conditions (such as when tasks have very different importance levels), this scheduling strategy may exhibit poor performance in terms of cumulative value, whereas a robust algorithm can be much more effective.
Which is constrained to be in the range [TI,, T,,,,~z 1. Any task can vary its period according to its needs within the specified range. Any variation, however, is subject to an elnrtic guarantee and is accepted only if there exists a feasible schedule in which all the other periods are within their range. It is worth noting that the elastic model is more general than the classical Liu and Layland's task model, so it does not prevent a user from defining hard real-time tasks. In fact, a task having T,,r,tz, = T,,, is equivalent to a hard real-time task with fixed period, independently of its elastic coefficient.