By Michel Foucault
From 1971 until eventually his dying in 1984, Michel Foucault taught on the Collège de France, maybe the main prestigious highbrow establishment in Europe. every year, in a chain of 12 public lectures, Foucault sought to give an explanation for his examine of the former 12 months. those lectures don't reduplicate his released books, even if they do have subject matters in universal. The lectures exhibit Foucault ranging freely and conversationally over the consequences of his research.
In Society has to be Defended, Foucault bargains with the emergence within the early seventeenth century of a brand new figuring out of society and its relation to battle. battle used to be now noticeable because the everlasting foundation of all associations of strength, a hidden presence inside of society which may be deciphered by means of an old research. Tracing this improvement, Foucault outlines a family tree of power/knowledge that was once to turn into a first-rate drawback in his ultimate years.
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Additional info for Society Must Be Defended: Lectures at the College de France, 1975-76
This is the initial meaning of our inversion of C l a u s e w i t z ' s aphorism—politics is the continuation of w a r by other means. Politics, in other w o r d s , sanctions a n d reproduces the d i s e q u i l i b r i u m of forces manifested in w a r . Inverting the proposition also means something else, namely that within this "civil peace," these political struggles, these clashes over or w i t h power, these modifications of relations of force—the shifting balance, the reversals—in a political system, all these things must be interpreted a s a continuation of w a r .
Foucault examines this in his earliest writings. Cf. chapter 4 of Maladie mentale etpersonalitt(Pans: PUF, 1954)("La Maladie etl'existence"); the introduction to Ludwig Binswanger, Le Reve et /'existence (Pans: Desclee de Brouwer) (reprinted in Dits et ecrits vol. 1, pp. 65-119; English translation bv Forrest Williams, "Dream, Imagination, and Existence," in Michel Foucault and Ludwig Binswanger, Dream and Existence, ed. : Humanities Press]; "La Psvchologie de 1 8 5 0 a 1950," in A. Weber and D.
The temptation is, u p to a point, to say: Right, let's continue, let's accumulate. After all, t h e r e is no d a n g e r at the moment that w e w i l l be colonized. " W e could, for instance, say, Look: ever since the very b e g i n n i n g s of a n t i p s y c h i a t r y or of the genealogies of p s y c h i a t r i c institutions—and it has been going on for a good fifteen y e a r s now— has a single M a r x i s t , psychoanalyst, or psychiatrist ever a t t e m p t e d to redo it in their own t e r m s or demonstrated that these genealogies were wrong, badly elaborated, badly articulated, or i l l - f o u n d e d ?