By James Graham-Campbell, Gareth Williams
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SURVEY OF SCANDINAVIAN COINAGE IN THE NINTH CENTURY In his presidential address, printed in The Numismatic Chronicle (1996), Professor Metcalf presented a number of further ideas about Scandinavian coinage, now concerning the ninth century. According to the present writer, the only way to discuss difficult numismatic problems in a constructive way, in order to get useful results, is (as just mentioned) to gather together all the available coins, and to note all the relevant characteristics of every single one.
But Christian influence, and domestic, perhaps heathen ambitions, together with advanced domestic handicraft, caused the use of other motifs as well, such as deer, cockerels and Wodan/Monster, that is part of KG 3, KG 4 and part of KG 5. Then production at Mint A came to an end. More or less at the same time, Mint B (Area IIIa), started by striking only Wodan/Monster-imitations of KG 5, very like those which were struck at Mint A. After a couple of years it was time also for Mint B to close. Around the middle of the ninth century, a new variant of the old Wodan/Monster type, that is KG 6, was minted.
The Scandinavian coinage starts with KG 3. 2, bottom right). KG 3–5 are, on the other hand, more or less mixed together. The gap between KG 2 and 3 is not only chronological, but also technical. In KG 3 the coins are larger, thinner and lighter than in KG 2, and the Carolingian letters are mixed with Scandinavian symbols. 3 g. 12 g (Malmer 1966, 80, Tab 1). Twenty undamaged coins of KG 2 have exactly the same mean weight as official Dorestad deniers, and there can be no doubt that KG 2 was minted according to the pre-reform weight-standard.