By Alfonso Gambardella
This publication bargains with an more and more very important phenomenon for competitiveness and innovation in undefined: particularly, the becoming use of easy clinical rules in business learn. It specializes in the pharmaceutical undefined, and discusses how contemporary major advancements in molecular biology and genetic engineering are influencing the ideas of drug businesses, their association of inner examine, their relationships with clinical associations, the industry constitution of the undefined, and the productiveness of drug study.
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Additional info for Science and Innovation: The US Pharmaceutical Industry during the 1980s
Contrary to what one would expect, advances and diffusion of public knowledge may magnify, rather than diminish, differences in the ability of firms to innovate. The book will also address questions about the changes in the way companies and scientific institutions conduct their research. Among other things, it will discuss whether the need for greater scientific creativity, and the linkages with the scientific network, are altering the attitude of drug firms towards secrecy. It will also discuss whether companies tend to restrict diffusion of academic research.
However, as we shall see in later chapters, the ability offirmsto differentiate product applications, or to utilize information about side-effects or new The pharmaceutical industry 15 uses of drugs from clinical trials, also depends to an important extent on their scientific expertise, and their knowledge about the basic structure of drugs and their biochemical action. Finally, in this industry, production is not a critical competitive factor. New compounds do not require extensive process modification.
With animal tests, scientists have to wait for the metabolization of the compound within the animal body, whilst in vitro tests provide more rapid indications of whether the compound binds to the receptor or not. ) Novascreen, an in vitro receptor screening system developed by Nova Pharmaceuticals,(a medium-sized biotech firm), in the 1980s, enables laboratory technicians to screen about 1,200 compounds against a receptor in a week. 22 Of course, receptor technology is not a complete substitute for animal tests.