Download Reading for Understanding : Toward an R & D Program in by Catherine Snow PDF

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By Catherine Snow

In fall 1999, the dept of Education's place of work of academic study and development (OERI) requested RAND to ascertain how OERI could increase thequality and relevance of the schooling learn it money. The RAND studying learn team (RRSG) used to be charged with constructing a examine framework to handle the main urgent matters in literacy. RRSG interested in analyzing comprehension the place within the maximum priorities for study are: (1) guide: How do we most sensible advertise the advance of informed readingand hinder studying comprehension problems? (2) instructor practise improvement: How will we organize lecturers to convey potent comprehension guide? (3) evaluation: How will we improve an evaluate method for studying comprehension that incorporates the layout of legitimate and trustworthy measures of self-regulated, strategic studying which are delicate to educational interventions? RRSG concluded that the examine infrastructure needs to: (a) receive long term investment that's sustained throughout administrations and political constituencies; (b) gather highbrow management that endures over a considerable time-frame and is insulated from political forces; (c) synthesize wisdom around the numerous learn projects in systematic methods; (d) enlist a cadre of well-trained investigators; and, (e) fund examine that's rigorous and of top quality.

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We also know about several approaches to education and to reading instruction that do not work. We know, for example, that many approaches to compensatory education for socially, economically, and educationally disadvantaged groups do not promote success in reading comprehension. We know as well that identifying children as learning disabled, without offering specific instructional treatments tailored to their individual needs, fails to generate reading comprehension gains. We know that current approaches to teaching secondlanguage learners, whether in English as a Second Language (ESL), bilingual, or all-English settings, often do not address the particular challenges of reading comprehension.

Little research directly addresses the issue of intra-individual differences in young and older readers. Such research could help teachers use their students’ particular strengths and reading preferences to build wide-ranging reading proficiency and could inform the design of more sensitive assessments as well. VARIABILITY IN TEXT It has long been recognized that texts should become more complex as readers’ capacities grow and that the characteristics of various genres and subject matters create varying challenges for readers.

Comprehension does not occur by simply extracting meaning from text. During reading, the reader constructs different representations of the text that are important for comprehension. These representations include, for example, the surface code (the exact wording of the text), the text base (idea units representing the meaning), and a representation of the mental models embedded in the text. The proliferation of computers and electronic text has led us to broaden the definition of text to include electronic text and multimedia documents in addition to conventional print.

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