By Holger Kluck
The paintings awarded during this publication is a tremendous step in the direction of realizing and at last suppressing history within the direct look for darkish subject debris scattering off germanium detectors. even though the flux of cosmic muons is decreased through many orders of importance in underground laboratories, the rest vigorous muons result in neutrons via quite a few methods, neutrons which may almost certainly mimic a gloomy subject sign. This thesis describes the size of muon-induced neutrons over greater than three years within the Modane underground laboratory. the knowledge are complemented through an intensive modeling of the neutron sign utilizing the GEANT4 simulation package deal, demonstrating the appropriateness of this instrument to version those infrequent procedures. therefore, an actual neutron creation yield could be provided. hence, destiny underground experiments should be capable of reliably version the anticipated price of muon-induced neutrons, making it attainable to improve the mandatory defensive notion to suppress this historical past component.
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Extra resources for Production Yield of Muon-Induced Neutrons in Lead: Measured at the Modane Underground Laboratory
Consequently, AMS data can be used to set limits on σa v , depending on the final states of the decay , see Fig. 9. A γ-ray signal may be produced directly as final state of the annihilation, but also via π0 -decay subsequent to W± -, Z-, and hadronic τ ± -decay; or hadronization . As γ-rays are unaffected by magnetic fields, they indicate the direction of their source. Contrary to the case of charged cosmic rays, γ-ray signals can be distinguish from background by their directional information.
Prog Part Nucl Phys 66(3):661–673. 003 27. Formaggio JA, Martoff CJ (2004) Backgrounds to sensitive experiments underground. Annu Rev Nucl Part Sci 54:361–412. 181248 28. Gaisser TK (1991) Cosmic rays and particle physics. 1. , repr. ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 29. Gorshkov GV, Zyabkin VA (1968) Production of neutrons in Pb, Cd, Fe, and Al under the influence of cosmic-ray muons at a depth of 150 in water equivalent (trans: Adashko JG). Sov J Nucl Phys 7(4):470–474. Orig. pub. as Yad Fiz 7:770–777 [in Russian] 30.
Such fine tuning could be avoided in the next to minimal suppersymetric standard model (NMSSM) . 4 Limits on the WIMP Self-annihilation Cross Section by Astroparticle Data As shown in the Sect. 2, the WIMP miracle can lead to the observed relic abundance of non-baryonic, cold dark matter if WIMPs are self-annihilating. To match the thermal relic density (Eq. 4b) an annihilation cross section of σa v ≈ 3 × 10−26 cm3 s−1 (Eq. 10) would be needed. This prediction can be tested by searching for particles produced in present day WIMP annihilation.