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By Pagels H.R.

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In labeling these issues advantaged-subgroup issues, I mean in no way to suggest that the constituents affected by these issues are advantaged relative to the general population. It is important to keep in mind that for the most part, all of the organizations being considered here represent groups that are marginalized or disadvantaged in some way relative to the population as a whole. The disadvantages faced by members of advantaged subgroups, however, are not necessarily compounded by other axes of marginalization.

Organizational Maintenance | James Q. Wilson suggests another set of strategic considerations that are likely to depress advocacy on behalf of disadvantaged subgroups. Echoing Michels, he argues that the decisions of organization leaders are structured in large part by concerns about organizational maintenance and survival—considerations about, for example, the need to secure contributions, hold on to members, and maintain legitimacy. Wilson contends further that these concerns make organization leaders risk-averse and compel them to cater to those who can contribute time and money (J.

After selecting all issues that were potentially relevant to the groups in the survey, I then searched the 1990–2000 volumes of the Congressional Record and of the Federal Register to confirm that the issues were on the agendas in the legislative and executive branches as well, noting how many times each issue had been mentioned in each of these sources. " Although appearing in any one of these sources would constitute sufficient evidence that issues were on the political radar screen and thus could reasonably be expected to be on the agenda of advocacy groups, all twenty-two issues that I selected were found in at least two of the sources, and twenty of the twenty-two issues were found in all three sources.

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