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By Paul V. Dutton

This is often the 1st finished research of private and non-private welfare in France on hand in English or French. It argues that France concurrently pursued varied paths towards common social safeguard. kin welfare embraced an business version during which classification differences and service provider keep watch over predominated. against this, safeguard opposed to the dangers of sickness, incapacity, maternity, and previous age a mutual reduction version of welfare. The booklet additionally strains overseas affects on French social reform, fairly from Germany's former territories in Alsace-Lorraine and Britain's Beveridge Plan.

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Michelin was perhaps the most notable of these solo allowance-paying employers. An industrial model of family welfare  in the development of employer-controlled family welfare. Large-scale collusion, made possible by the caisse de compensation, distinguished the development of family allowances from earlier employer paternalism, which generally occurred at the firm level. In effect, industrial and commercial employers had created a national family welfare system that lay completely outside the state’s purview.

IIIe Congr`es National des Allocations Familiales, compte rendu, , preface. Moral inspiration was a secondary motivation in the creation of the CCRP and the CCAF. No doubt, social Catholicism remained a vibrant tendency in the family allowance movement, yet CCAF meetings revealed pragmatists’ dominant role. The nineteenth-century social Catholic origins of family allowances were quickly buried under layers of secular labor-cost calculations and maneuverings to evade state intervention. The circumstances and personalities of the CCAF’s founding are particularly helpful in understanding the organization’s outlook and the eventual evolution of employers’ family welfare programs.

This requirement meant considerable humiliation and probably discouraged numerous eligible women from gaining access to allowances.  Additional CCRP policies took aim at the pacification of the labor force. Only particular kinds of absences could occur if workers wanted to collect their full allowance at the end of the month. Tolerated were absences due to sickness, an injury sustained on or off the job, and a serious illness or death in a worker’s family.  Union activities, work stoppages, and strikes were cause for allowance reductions.

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