By Rachel Giora
During this quantity, Rachel Giora explores how the salient meanings of words--the meanings that stand out as such a lot famous and obtainable in our minds--shape how we expect and the way we communicate. For Giora, salient meanings exhibit fascinating results in either figurative and literal language. In either domain names, audio system and writers creatively make the most the chances inherent within the proven fact that, whereas phrases have a number of meanings, a few meanings are extra obtainable than others. Of many of the meanings we encode in our psychological lexicon for a given observe or expression, we ascribe larger cognitive precedence to a couple over others. curiously, the main salient that means isn't really continually the literal which means. Giora argues that it really is cognitively sought after salient meanings, instead of literal meanings, that play an important function within the comprehension and creation of language. She indicates that although context starts to impact comprehension instantly, it does so with no obstructing the early getting access to of salient meanings. therefore, the which means we first attend to is the salient note which means, despite contextual bias. wisdom of salient meanings seems to play an enormous function, probably crucial function, within the technique of utilizing and knowing of language. Going past the generic results of literal which means and context, the Graded Salience speculation offers the main complete reason behind how we use language for that means. during this quantity, Giora provides her new version for the 1st time in a book-length therapy, with unique and illuminating views that might be of curiosity to linguists, philosophers, psychologists, and all who need to know extra approximately simply how we comprehend what we suggest.
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Extra resources for On Our Mind: Salience, Context, and Figurative Language, 2003
In addition, familiar idioms (spill the beans) were read faster than their literal paraphrases (told him all) compared to their variants (didn’t spill a single bean), which took equally long to read as their literal counterparts (didn’t say a single word). Given that the meanings of these idioms and their variants converge in affordances but diverge in degree of salience, it is salience rather than grounding that can account for the difference in the reading times found here. That salience is independent of grounding is even more evident considering that conventional language that lacks in affordedness is sometimes faster to read than less conventional language that does not.
According to Levinson, generalized conversational implicatures are generated by heuristic devices (Levinson, 2000: 24). As such, they are not salient, since they are not coded or stored. 23): some are stronger or more easily generated than others. 3 in this chapter). Yet some might still be actually generated on the ﬂy, in spite of their high frequency or preference. Thus, in the ﬁnal analysis, only empirical measures would determine the degree of salience (or nonsalience) of generalized conversational implicatures (for such initiations, see Hamblin & Gibbs, 2001).
For illustration, consider the following example cited in Ariel (2002b), in which a judge ruled that a “burgundy” car satisﬁed an order of a “red” car, accepting the defendant’s position that “the plaintiffs indicated ‘red’ without indicating a speciﬁc shade of red. . According to [the] Even-Shoshan dictionary deﬁnition, burgundy is dark red” (Ma’ariv, an Israeli daily, 15 July 1992). Ariel terms this interpretation of red a “wise-guy” interpretation. Indeed, ‘burgundy’ is a coded member in the ‘red’ category and constitutes part of the meaning of red.