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By Graham Hill

Fresh suite of Chemistry assets for the recent 2008 a degree necessities by means of the bestselling authors Graham Hill and Andrew Hunt, together with Dynamic studying and private instruct electronic resources.

content material: hide; booklet identify; Contents; Unit 1 Atoms, bonds and teams; Unit 2 Chains, power and assets; The periodic desk of components; Index.
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fresh suite of Chemistry assets for the recent 2008 a degree requirements via the bestselling authors Graham Hill and Andrew Hunt, together with Dynamic studying and private educate electronic resources. Read more...

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OCR chemistry for AS

Fresh suite of Chemistry assets for the recent 2008 a degree requirements via the bestselling authors Graham Hill and Andrew Hunt, together with Dynamic studying and private educate electronic assets. content material: conceal; ebook name; Contents; Unit 1 Atoms, bonds and teams; Unit 2 Chains, power and assets; The periodic desk of parts; Index.

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HCl(g) + H2O(l) → H3O+(aq) + Cl–(aq) H2SO4(l) + 2H2O(l) → 2H3O+(aq) + SO42–(aq) In a similar way, alkalis like sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide cannot act as alkalis until hydroxide ions are present in aqueous solution. 5 Reactions of acids with bases – neutralisation Acids react with bases to form salts. The acidity of the acids is neutralised by the bases and this leads to the description of the reactions as neutralisations. One of the best known examples of neutralisation is the reaction between sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid to form sodium chloride, which is often called common salt.

8 Finding the volumes of acids and alkalis that react When an alkali neutralises an acid, the pH of the solution changes. We can follow this pH change by using an indicator. The indicator shows how much alkali just reacts with all the acid when there is no acid or alkali left over. Activity 40 Comparing the acidity of different vinegars safety pipette filler Two students were asked to compare the acidity of different white wine vinegars. The acid in vinegar is ethanoic acid, CH3COOH. 0 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide just reacts with each vinegar using phenolphthalein indicator.

8 State three factors the students must control in their experiments in order to compare the two vinegars fairly. 9 Preparing for titrations Titrations with glassware and other equipment – like that described in the last activity and like those used in school and college laboratories – are widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and other industries. Many laboratories have automatic instruments for carrying out titrations, although the principles are exactly the same as in titrations in which the volumes are measured using traditional burettes and pipettes.

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