Download Nuclear Physics (Addison-Wesley Series in Nuclear Science by Irving Kaplan PDF

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By Irving Kaplan

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Example text

2-3. In this diagram, the distance P I P z is the deflection caused by the electrostatic field as observed on the fluorescent screen; D and D' are the parallel plates as before, and 1 is the length of the plates. As the particles traverse the field. thev are subjected to a vertical acceleration in a direction parallel to that of the field during the time interval l/v, so that the velocity produced in the vertical direition is (eE/m) (l/v). The horizontal velocity of the particles is not changed by the field.

This process is repeated, and the electron current is amplified as the electrons are accelerated from dynode to dynode. The output current, or pulse, at the anode may be more than a million times as great as the current originally emitted from the cathode. Each particle incident on the phosphor produces a pulse, and the pulses are fed to an electronic system where they are counted. Electronic systems have also been developed which measure the energy of the incident particles; the resulting instrument is called a scintillation spectrometer.

The amplified voltage pulses must then be counted in some way so that their rate can be measured. For very slow rates (less than about one per second), the pulses can be made to operate a relay-type recorder. For large rates, mechanical devices either fail completely or miss many counts. The response of an ionization chamber can be made sufficiently rapid so that a-particles arriving a t intervals of sec or less can be detected and the counting must then be made very efficient. A scaling unit, or scaler, is an electric device which selects precisely every mth pulse and passes it on to the recorder.

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