By Bernard Grofman
This e-book is the main up to date remedy of balloting rights legislation and the varied controversies surrounding minority illustration. Written through authors with first-hand event within the case legislations, the ebook info the evolution of the legislation and precedent from 1965 ahead. The authors clarify the elemental common sense underlying the foremost judgements, introduce the reader to the strategies for constructing criteria of illustration and measuring discrimination, and talk about the most important issues of modern competition. within the concluding bankruptcy, the authors deal with the results of the hot advancements in vote casting rights legislation for the way forward for illustration in the US.
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Extra resources for Minority Representation and the Quest for Voting Equality
21 And one can argue that the government should take an active role in encouraging minority registration and voting rather than simply removing the barriers to participation (Jones, 1985). Nevertheless, vast strides have been taken; the enormous barriers to registration and voting that existed up to the 1960s have been removed, and by comparison with earlier periods, electoral participation by African-Americans is very high. Yet even before the Voting Rights Act was passed, it was apparent that voting was only the first hurdle to effective participation.
The right to vote and the right to representation 21 additional seven years. The coverage formula was revised to include jurisdictions that maintained any test or device and had less than half of its voting-age population either registered on November 1, 1972, or casting votes in the 1972 presidential election. Literacy tests, which had been temporarily suspended in 1970, were eliminated permanently under the 1975 legislation. Other amendments to the act codified the effects of the Twenty-fourth and Twenty-sixth amendments and the Supreme Court's decision in Harper v.
26 Although nonretrogression is thus a useful tool to prevent backsliding, it is certainly not sufficient to eliminate vote dilution. 27 Although such a requirement would surely eliminate dilution (at least for the groups that were proportionately represented), there are two major problems. "29 Obviously, there is a vast ground between these extremes, and there is nothing in political theory or the law that tells us unambiguously when a voting system The right to vote and the right to representation 27 is nondilutionary.