By Mikhail V. Zhernokletov, B. L. Glushak, William W. Anderson, Frank J. Cherne, Marvin A. Zocher
Understanding the actual and thermomechanical reaction of fabrics subjected to extensive dynamic loading is a problem of serious importance in engineering this day. This quantity assumes the duty of amassing either experimental and diagnostic tools in a single position, seeing that no longer a lot infromation has been formerly disseminated within the clinical literature. This e-book will therefore be a useful better half for either the pro practioner in addition to for the amateur coming into the sphere of experimental surprise physics.
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The point of tangency between the Michelson-Rayleigh straight line and the total energy release adiabat is the Jouguet point. It has a remarkable feature: the detonation wave propagation velocity corresponding to the state at this point is the minimum possible value. Such a detonation wave is called a normal detonation wave. Within the detonation front there is an elevated pressure zone 12 usually referred to as the chemical peak. The spatial pressure distribution at the chemical peak depends on speciﬁc chemical reaction conditions which we do not consider here.
Schematic of the gun and rarefaction wave and projectile paths in the gas at P0 by c0 and assume that the polytropic exponent, γ, which is the ratio of speciﬁc heat at constant pressure (CP ) to that at constant volume (CV ), is a constant. At the time the projectile starts moving, a rarefaction wave running to the left appears in the chamber. e. the initial perturbation from the projectile, propagates to the left at a sound speed of a characteristic C− , x = −c0 t, and arrives at the rear wall of the chamber in time, lc /c0 .
Zhernokletov Fig. 2. Powder gun: 1 – muzzle nozzle, 2 – barrel, 3 – chamber housing, 4 and 5 – rings, 6 – cover, 7 – electrodes, 8 – insulator, 9 – powder weight and nichrome helix, 10 – impactor, 11 – vacuum seal, 12 – target. (Sizes are given in mm) Fig. 3. VNIIEF powder rail-gun used in the laboratory. In addition to these demerits, one should recognize the poor reproducibility of experimental results in short-barrel guns. Even with the use of modern high-energy colloid powders, which burn uniformly in parallel layers, there is no assurance of the stability of shots that is required 2 Methods and Devices for Producing Intense Shock Loads 37 in many cases, nor does their use preclude a wide variation in velocity from one shot to another, which makes experimental results considerably harder to compare.