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Even if citizens consciously use their votes to ship messages approximately their personal tastes for public coverage, the Washington group occasionally involves think that it has heard one of these message. during this e-book the authors ask 'What then happens?' They specialise in those perceived mandates - the place they arrive from and the way they modify the behaviors of participants of Congress, the media, and citizens. those occasions are infrequent. merely 3 elections in put up warfare the United States (1964, 1980, and 1994) have been declared mandates through the media consensus. those declarations, notwithstanding, had a profound if ephemeral effect on contributors of Congress. They altered the basic gridlock that forestalls Congress from adopting significant coverage alterations. The responses via contributors of Congress to those 3 elections are chargeable for a few of the defining regulations of this period. regardless of their infrequency, then, mandates are vital to the face of public coverage.
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New York Times Stories Interpreting Election Outcomes: 1960 to 1978 Year 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 total Mandate Claim Total Stories Percent Supporting Mandate 1 1 6 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 11 1 4 6 5 3 1 3 7 1 1 32 100 25 100 0 33 0 0 29 0 0 34 opposite. As we will see later in the analysis of the numbers election night observers would have seen, 1964 is the single case of stunning impact. The Kennedy win of 1960 draws a single reference to mandate and it is positive. Whether it was the lack of mandate stories or the closest presidential popular vote win2 in modern history, mandate claims in 1960 were without consequence.
Election night 1980 needed a story. Republicans shocked the nation and the commentators (more on surprise is to come) with a big presidential win, when, against an incumbent, even a small one would have impressed. But 1980 also produced an impressive GOP gain in the House, the party’s biggest ever win in the Senate (producing a then-unheard-of Republican majority in that body), and gains in statehouses. 3 for the elections of 1982 through 2002). This was followed by another Republican landslide in 1984, much like Nixon’s twelve years before, which produced Democratic gains in Congress.
4 provides that summary look. The 1994 midterm election emerges as the most one-sided in party terms, followed by 1980 and 1964. These (we have seen) are the three cases that produced a consensus interpretation of electoral mandate in the early postelection period. The midterms of 1966 and 1974 are almost as large in total effect as 1964, but then did not need a mandate interpretation. The 1966 result mainly simply reversed the Democratic gains of 1964. And 1974, the Watergate election, was long expected to be a Democratic sweep.