By Marc Tiebout
The functionality of voltage managed oscillators (VCO) is of maximum value for any telecommunication or facts communique approach. This sensible advisor develops a scientific, fully-integrated LC-VCO layout for low energy and occasional part noise, particularly helpful to fulfill the calls for on cellular units resembling mobile phones. The proposed VCO layout techniques are experimentally established with a number of totally built-in CMOS VCOs. The concise presentation is accessible in 3 components (VCO layout; CMOS units for VCO layout; and fully-integrated CMOS VCor GSM) and supplemented via an appendix summarizing the state-of-the-art.
Read Online or Download Low Power Vco Design In Cmos PDF
Similar microelectronics books
This monograph offers an up-to-the-minute point of view of fuel discharge physics and its purposes to numerous industries. It begins from a finished assessment of the differing kinds to generate plasmas by means of DC discharges, capacitive and inductive radiofrequency coupling, helicon waves together with electron cyclotron resonance, and ion beams.
Customizable processors were defined because the subsequent typical step within the evolution of the microprocessor enterprise: a step within the lifetime of a brand new know-how the place best functionality on my own isn't any longer adequate to assure marketplace good fortune. different components develop into primary, corresponding to time to industry, comfort, power potency, and simplicity of customization.
A tremendous challenge on top of things engineering is strong suggestions layout that stabilizes a nominal plant whereas additionally attenuating the impression of parameter diversifications and exterior disturbances. This monograph addresses this challenge in doubtful discontinuous dynamic platforms with distinctive awareness to electromechanical structures with hard-to-model nonsmooth phenomena reminiscent of friction and backlash.
This accomplished publication will offer either basic and utilized features of adhesion concerning microelectronics in one and simply obtainable resource. one of the themes to be lined include;Various theories or mechanisms of adhesionSurface (physical or chemical) characterization of fabrics because it relates to adhesionSurface cleansing because it relates to adhesionWays to enhance adhesionUnraveling of interfacial interactions utilizing an array of pertinent techniquesCharacterization of interfaces / interphasesPolymer-polymer adhesionMetal-polymer adhesion (metallized polymers)Polymer adhesion to numerous substratesAdhesion of skinny filmsAdhesion of underfillsAdhesion of molding compoundsAdhesion of other dielectric materialsDelamination and reliability concerns in packaged devicesInterface mechanics and crack propagationAdhesion size of skinny movies and coatings
Extra info for Low Power Vco Design In Cmos
5 Inductor Scaling and Reuse 51 Fig. 15. Coil scaling testchip photograph and 4 to decrease the series resistance. The staggered winding widths further decrease the series resistance, while conserving the diﬀerential self-resonance frequency. A comparison between measured and predicted model parameters for the 6 windings layouts is shown in Fig. 21. A very good ﬁt between predicted and extracted values is obtained. The deviation for the smallest coil series resistance is due to increased via resistances at the winding crossings.
3 Leeson’s Empirical Phase Noise Expression In 1966 Leeson [33, 67] set up the following empirical expression for the phase noise of a resonator-based VCO: L (ωc , ∆f ) = 10 log 2F kT 1+ Psig ωc 2QL ∆ω 2 1+ ∆ω1/f 3 |∆ω| . 10) 1 ∆ω2 1 ∆ω3 where QL is the loaded quality factor of the tank, ∆ω = 2π∆f is the angular frequency oﬀset, and F is called the device noise excess factor or simply noise factor. ∆ω1/f 3 describes the ﬂicker noise corner frequency and is not equal to the device ﬂicker noise corner frequency.
Since we assume static parasitic components, the resistances and capacitances to the substrate can be split into two equal parts to complete the equivalent electrical circuit. 11 shows the resulting electrical circuit. In [29, 46, 69, 93] detailed CL P+ PCOx1 C Sub1 L RSub1 RS RSub2 COx2 C Sub2 Fig. 11. Low-order equivalent circuit methods and algorithms for the calculation of these lumped components can be found. For simple spiral coils CL normally can be neglected as the voltage diﬀerence between neighboring windings is small.