By Elena Khlinovskaya Rockhill
formative years held a unique position in Soviet society: noticeable because the key to a greater destiny, little ones have been imagined because the basically privileged type. for this reason, the quick emergence in post-Soviet Russia of the huge numbers of weak 'social orphans', or teenagers who've residing kinfolk yet develop up in residential care associations, stuck the general public all of sudden, resulting in discussions of the function and position of formative years within the new society. in line with an in-depth research the writer explores dissonance among new post-Soviet sorts of kin and financial system, and lingering Soviet attitudes, revealing social orphans as an embodiment of a long-standing strength fight among the nation and the kin. the writer uncovers parallels among (post-) Soviet and Western practices in baby welfare and attitudes in the direction of 'bad' moms, and proposes a brand new method of analyzing kinship the place the kingdom is an essential member.
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Extra info for Lost to the State : Family Discontinuity, Social Orphanhood and Residential Care in the Russian Far East
Positions stand in relationships of domination, subordination and equivalence by virtue of this access to capital, and agents in dominant positions strive for the preservation and improvement of their positions with respect to the defining capital of the field. Thus, specifically through the concepts of cultural capital, dominance – a special form of power according to Weber – is seen as directly connected with the unequal distribution of, and access to, resources. This proves to be a crucial variable in the power relationship between the two actors, the state and the family, serving to illustrate the mechanism of turning the initial open power balance into one of state domination.
In academic discourse, poverty had been linked to ‘culture’. Oscar Lewis (1976) developed the concept of ‘culture of poverty’ among poor Mexican families, with the main features of this ‘culture’ being personal and family disorganization, resignation and fatalism, the use of violence and alcoholism. In the UK, Willis demonstrated the acquisition among young, non-academic, disaffected males of working-class identity and the ‘continuous regeneration of working class cultural forms’, which have ‘an important function in the overall reproduction of social totality and especially in relation to reproducing the social conditions for a certain kind of production’ (1977: 2– 3, see also Evans 2007).
According to Foucault, power relations are rooted in the social nexus and are not reconstituted ‘above’ society as a supplementary structure. Power is a ‘way of acting upon an acting subject by virtue of their acting or being capable of action’ (Foucault 1982: 220); therefore, power exists only when it is put into action and is exercised over free subjects, and only insofar as they are free. This view of power does not negate the agency of a subject. In a struggle between the state agents and parents, my data shows a severe imbalance of power.