By Lorenzo Cantoni
From music to gaming, details collecting to eLearning; eCommerce to eGovernment, Lorenzo Cantoni and Stefano Tardini's soaking up creation considers the web as a verbal exchange expertise; the possibilities it provides us, the restrictions it imposes and the services it permits. web explores: the political economic system of the net hypertext desktop mediated verbal exchange web content as verbal exchange conceptualizing clients of the net web groups and practices. excellent for college students learning this contemporary phenomenon, and a veritable e-feast for all cyber junkies.
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Extra info for INTERNET (Routledge Introductions to Media and Communications)
3,500 currently existing have a written form; in the whole history of the world, only a few more than 100 languages have been able to develop a literature of their own (Ong 2002: 7). As a matter of fact, writing is a technology in the usual sense of the word, since it requires the use of a series of tools, such as pens, ink, paper, and is completely artiﬁcial: there is no way to write ‘naturally’ (Ong 2002: 81–3). Because of its close relationship with writing, Fidler regards spoken language as ‘the ﬁrst great mediamorphosis’ (Fidler 1997: 56).
Already, we can begin to see in this outline how much factors are pertinent to the development of the internet as well as other communication technologies. In order to facilitate potential adopters of a new technology to overcome their uncertainties, some key characteristics of the innovation must be perceived by them. Rogers calls these characteristics perceived attributes. Attributes 1–5 are reported by Rogers (1995: 15–17), attributes 6 and 7 are added by Fidler (1997: 13–17): 1 2 3 4 5 Relative advantage: the innovation must be perceived as better than the idea it supersedes.
A ﬁfth factor, actual usage of ICTs, is important for matching the theory of the index with the reality in a country [. ]. The inclusion of usage also captures other aspects not explicitly accounted for in the other four factors. Eight indicators are used to represent the ﬁve factors. Each indicator is divided by a ‘goalpost’ the maximum value established for that indicator. Each indicator is then summed to obtain an overall index score. 1 ITU DAI deﬁnition 2003 DAI Goalposts: DAI maximum values Indicator Goalpost Fixed telephone subscribers per 100 inhabitants Mobile subscribers per 100 inhabitants Adult literacy 60 100 ⎫ ⎬ ⎭ 100 Overall school enrolment (primary, 100 secondary and tertiary) Internet access price (20 hours 100 per month) as percentage of per capita income Broadband subscribers per 100 30 inhabitants International Internet bandwidth 10,000 per capita Internet users per 100 inhabitants 85 Note Each has one half weight for infrastructure Literacy has two-third weight and enrolment one-third weight for knowledge The inverse of this indicator is used ⎫ ⎬ ⎭ Each has one-half weight for quality Source: ITU 2003a.