By Michael Werner Zürch
This thesis describes novel ways and implementation of high-resolution microscopy within the severe ultraviolet mild regime. utilizing coherent ultrafast laser-generated brief wavelength radiation for illuminating samples permits imaging past the answer of visible-light microscopes. Michael Zürch supplies a complete evaluate of the basics and methods concerned, ranging from the laser-based frequency conversion scheme and its technical implementation in addition to basic issues of diffraction-based imaging at nanoscopic spatial answer. Experiments on electronic in-line holography and coherent diffraction imaging of synthetic and biologic specimens are confirmed and mentioned during this booklet. within the box of biologic imaging, a singular award-winning mobilephone category scheme and its first experimental program for opting for breast melanoma cells are brought. ultimately, this publication offers a newly built means of producing established illumination by way of so-called optical vortex beams within the severe ultraviolet regime and proposes its normal usability for super-resolution imaging.
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Extra info for High-Resolution Extreme Ultraviolet Microscopy: Imaging of Artificial and Biological Specimens with Laser-Driven Ultrafast XUV Sources
However, for even larger a2 distances z λ the Fraunhofer diffraction formula (Eq. 20) was found. It relates the far-field and the source field by the Fourier transform. Thus the coordinates in the far-field can be related to spatial frequencies q by qx = x/(zλ) and q y = y/(zλ). 21) In terms of interpreting diffraction as an elastic scattering of photons one can interpret these spatial frequencies as the components of the momentum transfer vector q(qx , q y , qz ). The photons exiting the diffraction plane kout , which will later be denoted as the object plane, experience a higher momentum change the more the propagation directions differ from the incidence direction of the photons defined by the wavevector kin of the incoming wave.
As explained in Sect. 4 there is a fundamental resolution limitation set by the highest momentum transfer that can be measured. However, typically the magnitude of the signal in the Fourier domain decays quickly for increasing momentum transfer, thus in experiments the fringes measured at the edge of the CCD, if measured at all, are noisy. e. it should be checked what the highest momentum transfer that actually contributed to the reconstruction is. For this purpose Chapman et al. 42) where U˜ final (q) is the final complex-valued reconstructed field in the detector plane without applying the modulus constraint in the last step.
50) which now is obviously only dependent on the pinhole size and the wavelength. For XUV DIH usually a λ, which allows to simplify Eq. 22λ a . The practical implication of this result is that one should match the pinhole size to the dimensions of the detector and its anticipated distance . In this case one can compute the NA and thus the achievable resolution simply by Eq. 47. Of course w is always fulfilled. However, one could argue to use a pinhole so tiny that wAiry in table-top HHG experiments the XUV flux is not excessive and thus best use of the available photons should be made.