Download High density plasma sources : design, physics, and by Oleg A. Popov PDF

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By Oleg A. Popov

This e-book describes the layout, physics, and function of excessive density plasma assets that have been largely explored in low strain plasma processing, corresponding to plasma etching and planarization, plasma more suitable chemical vapor deposition of skinny movies, sputtered deposition of metals and dielectrics, epitaxial development of silicon and GaAs, and plenty of different purposes. this can be a finished survey and an in depth description of such a lot complicated excessive density plasma resources utilized in plasma processing. The e-book is a balanced presentation in that it supplies either a theoretical therapy and sensible functions. it may be of substantial curiosity to scientists and engineers engaged on plasma resource layout, and procedure improvement.

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Example text

However, this effect has not been experimentally confirmed. In fact, the m == 0 mode, which has its energy absorption peak on axis, should give the narrowest plasmas of alI~ but in practice, the opposite is observed. [19] have shown that the m == 0 mode creates more uniform plasmas than the m == 1 mode, possibly because of surface absorption processes. 0 EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF THEORY It is difficult to compare results from different laboratories because the results are often device-dependent. Furthermore, the most comnlon diagnostic, the Langmuir probe, is subject to errors caused by RF pickup~ and the degree ofcancellation ofthese RF signals differs among experimenters.

In principle, effective collision frequencies Vi and ve can be included in the transverse motions by retaining these temlS in Eq. 35. However, it ,vould not be worthwhile to do this, since the main effect of collisions is in the parallel motion of the electrons. The component Ez \vhich is needed to overcome collisional drag gives rise to the absorption of the RF energy and is given by the z component ofEq. 6. This is by far the dominant dissipative effect. 0 ~ ..... 0 ..... 0 0 1000 3000 2000 4000 5000 B (G) Figure 7.

39) Im(k)~~T OJc ' In this perturbation treatment, k and T2 == p2 - k 2 may be given their collisionless values. In the experiments of Boswell,[lO] this damping rate fell short of explaining the absorption of RF energy by a factor of about 103 . Chen[27] has proposed that Landau damping, a collisionless mechanism in which wave energy is expended in accelerating electrons, could be responsible for the unusually efficient absorption. Figure 8 shows a cartoon of how this occurs. Helicon Plasma Sources mlk 19 ~ Figure 8.

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