By Jinguo Hu, Gerald Seiler, C. Kole
The sunflower has involved mankind for hundreds of years. The oilseed sunflower contributes approximately ten percentage of the world’s plant-derived fit for human consumption oil and the confection kind sunflower holds a substantial percentage of the without delay ate up snacks industry. additionally, sunflower can also be grown as a decorative for lower plant life, in addition to in domestic gardens. we're now embarking at the age of genomics on the way to expedite the method of genetic development of vegetation. there was an explosion of data on genetic markers, DNA sequences, and genomic assets for many significant foodstuff plants together with sunflower. This quantity is meant to bridge conventional learn with glossy molecular investigations on sunflower.
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Additional resources for Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Sunflower
The inflorescence is a capitulum or head consisting of an outer whorl of showy and generally yellow ray flowers and from 700 to 3,000 disk flowers in oilseed hybrids up to 8,000 disk flowers in non-oilseed hybrids (Pustovoit 1975). The disk flowers are arranged in arcs radiating from the center of the head and are perfect flowers that produce achenes. Involucral bracts or phyllaries, which vary in form and size, surround the head. The showy flowers on the outer whorl of the head have five elongated petals united to form strap-like structures, which give them the name ray or ligulate flowers.
Vertisols, deserts, and salt marshes). In contrast to some other large Angiosperm families, much of the biodiversity of the Compositae is in extreme environments rather than within the tropics. Representatives of this family are present on every continent and in nearly all habitats except Antarctica (Funk et al. 2005). Helianthus belongs to the Asteraceae subfamily Asteroideae, tribe Heliantheae, subtribe Helianthineae (Panero and Funk 2002). The 12 Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Sunflower classification of Heliantheae is currently supported by data suggesting that Phoebanthus is sister to Helianthus (Schilling 2001; Schilling and Panero 2002) and that these two genera are sister to another clade containing Pappobolus (previously considered South American Helianthus), Simsia, Tithonia, and some Viguiera species (Schilling and Panero, 1996, 2002; Schilling 2001).
The 14 annual species are all diploid, and the 37 perennial species include 27 diploid, 4 tetraploid, 6 hexaploid, and 4 mixi-ploid species. Helianthus ciliaris and H. strumosus have both tetraploid and hexaploid forms, while H. decapetalus and H. smithii contain diploid and tetraploid forms. Basic Information 21 The origins and relationships of the polyploid hybrid species in Helianthus have long been of interest and remain largely unresolved, particularly for perennials (Timme et al. 2007). It is currently unknown which polyploid species are autopolyploids and which are allopolyploids.