By Leon C Snyder
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Extra resources for Gardening in the upper Midwest
In a few dicolyledonous plants such as the pea, the hypocotyl does not elongate and the cotyledons remain in the soil as the epicotyl elongates to form the leafy stem. In monocotyledonous plants like corn and onions, there is a single seed leaf. Most garden vegetables and some annual flowers are seeded directly in the garden. The depth of planting and the proper time for planting are important considerations. There are no fixed rules for ascertaining the correct depth of seeding. Generally, the depth is dependent on seed size.
Grapes, willows, and honeysuckle are often propagated in this manner. Leaf cuttings are used on a limited number of plants. The African violet is the best example. A clean cut is made through the petiole about 1 inch below the attachment to the leaf blade. The leaf and petiole are inserted in the rooting medium at an angle, with the petiole covered to the base of the leaf. Roots form at the base of the petiole, and an adventitious bud develops at the base and produces several small plants. Certain large-leaved begonias can also be propagated from a leaf or even a portion of a leaf.
Various types of grafts are used to join the stock and the scion. The whip graft is employed where the stock and the scion are approximately the same diameter. A diagonal cut is made on both the stock and the scion. The angle of the cut should be the same on each. A slit is then made parallel to the longitudinal axis about two-thirds the distance from the base to the top of the slanted cut. Next, the two pieces are joined by sliding the "tongue" of one into the "slit" of the other. It is important that the cambium of both stock and scion be in contact at least along one side.