By Peter J. Mohr and Barry N. Taylor
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Extra resources for Fundamental Physical Constants
022 ×1023 /mole is Avogadro’s number. 36 N A i . 5) To avoid deterioration of the isolating material, the designer should provide appropriate shielding for the isolating parts. 2 Faraday Cups for High Power Beams Contact Cooling If the average power loss in a Faraday cup becomes higher than some watts, contact cooling may be a solution. This can be performed by using an isolating material of relatively high heat conductivity between the cup body and a part, which can take away the heat to the beam pipe by water cooling or via heat conductivity.
2 The Active Beam Transformer In the last 20 years, the development of beam current transformers has followed the development of modern electronic circuits. , [30, 61, 62]), as shown in the modiﬁed electrical equivalent circuit of Fig. 29. Substituting R/A for R in the electrical equivalent circuit of the passive beam current transformer in Fig. 25 and again neglecting CL leads to the time constant τ= R A L L ≈ . 47) Since L/RL L/R, the time constant is increased considerably and in consequence the number of windings N can be reduced to achieve higher sensitivity.
Beam current transformer inside a vacuum-sealed housing , GSI Foto pulses having lengths up to 8 ms with a maximum droop of 3% using a ferrite core shielded by a Mu-metal box inside the vacuum-sealed housing. Referring also to Chap. 30) where Apot is the vector potential. Since the signal is nearly independent of the beam position and the transverse dimensions of the beam, only the azimuthal component of the magnetic ﬁeld Bϕ has to be considered. 31) with − e→ ϕ as the unit vector in the ϕ-direction of a cylindrical coordinate system, deﬁned by the two other coordinates z (in the beam direction) and the radial coordinate r.