By Jürg Schwizer, Michael Mayer, Oliver Brand
Intended for wire-bonding and flip-chip packaging pros and for scientists and engineers operating within the box of mechanical microsensors, this sensible monograph introduces novel size applied sciences that let for in situ and real-time exam of actual techniques through the packaging approach or in the course of next reliability checks. The size process provided the following makes attainable measurements at previously inaccessible packaging interconnects. For the 1st time it turns into attainable to explain the wire-bonding technique window when it comes to the actual forces on the touch area rather than the utilized computer settings. this can be major for a deeper figuring out and destiny improvement of those packaging procedures. functions of the sensor within the box of twine bonding and flip-chip characterization also are illustrated. The reader will achieve a lot perception into the $64000 box of interconnection expertise in semiconductor packaging.
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Extra info for Force Sensors for Microelectronic Packaging Applications (Microtechnology and MEMS)
2 Ball Bond Sensor 37 Force sensors measuring local stress fields of mechanical contacts Buried sensor structures Sensor element Adjacent sensor structures Structured Plain Test pad Test pad Fig. 12. Schematic top view of the different sensor design approaches. the test pad. Buried sensors were first reported in . 9. g underneath the contact zone) results in a high sensor response but it also entails large stress field gradients which diminish the repeatability. In order to achieve high measurement repeatability and gain freedom in the test pad design, adjacent sensors have been designed .
A typical recording time of the ball bonding sequence is 20 ms. This results in 100 000 measurement points at a sample rate of 5 MS/s. The black areas in the x- and y-force signal are due to the ultrasound oscillation of the bonding tool. An enlargement of the time scale shows the individual oscillations of the sensor signal in detail (d) for a time frame of 20 µs. Before the touchdown of the ball on the pad, the sensor signals are constant. If the hardware offset correction is activated and synchronized with the first trigger point, the sensor signal is zero due to the offset correction during the search time.
A large Vzz stress field predominates directly under the contact for an applied normal force, but vanishes rapidly outside the contact zone. Buried sensor structures sensitive to Vzz stress can be used to sense normal forces. For this type of sensor, reference resistors are needed to form a full Wheatstone bridge. Resistors R1 and R4 in Fig. 13d are used as reference for the sensing resistors R2 and R3. The stress field componentsVxx, Vyy, and Vxy are existent directly under the contact as well as outside the contact zone.