By Alberto Alesina
During this this well timed research of the various techniques of the US and Europe to the issues of household inequality and poverty, the authors describe simply how varied the 2 continents are within the point of country engagement within the redistribution of source of revenue. They talk about a number of attainable fiscal motives for the variation, together with assorted degrees of pre-tax source of revenue, openness, and social mobility; they survey politico-historical transformations resembling the various actual dimension of countries, their electoral and criminal structures, and the nature in their political events, in addition to their studies of warfare; they usually research sociological motives which come with varied attitudes to the negative and notions of social accountability, in addition to, most significantly, attitudes to race.
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Extra resources for Fighting Poverty in the US and Europe: A World of Difference
The typical problem of pension systems in these countries is that very few privileged insiders are well protected and many others are not. Especially until recent reforms, in Italy certain groups, particularly public employees, received extremely privileged treatment and the public pension system was (and partly still is) a jungle of special provisions granted for political patronage. In France the ﬁrst step of a broader pension reform was to eliminate some privileges of public servants, in 2002.
4) Source: Alesina, Glaeser, and Sacerdote (2001); original source Tanzi and Schuknecht (2000) and OECD. 20 Redistribution in the United States and Europe nineteenth century, the absolute difference grew as the welfare state expanded both in Europe and the United States, especially in the 1960s and 1970s. The observation that the difference is longstanding is important, because it allows us to exclude explanations of the difference that are speciﬁc to a certain period or event. 3. 1. Income support policies and safety nets We consider a representative household in Germany, Sweden, and the United States; speciﬁcally we investigate to what extent are existing welfare programs beneﬁcial to such a household when it experiences needs such as the costs of raising a child, of sickness, of disability, and of extreme poverty.
On top of this, the progressivity of income tax brackets is only one aspect of the question. How capital accumulation is taxed, the structure of value added taxes on different goods, and the share of different forms of taxation are some of the other parameters. An appropriate measure of the taxation of capital for one country is often the subject of an entire research paper. Here we can only scratch the surface. 8; leaving aside deﬁcits which come and go, spending approximately equals revenues.