By Lawrence Freedman
First released two decades in the past, Lawrence Freedman's Evolution of Nuclear Strategy was once instantly acclaimed because the general paintings at the historical past of makes an attempt to manage militarily and politically with the negative harmful strength of nuclear guns. It has now been rewritten, drawing on quite a lot of new study, and up-to-date to take account of the interval following the top of the chilly warfare, taking the tale to modern arguments approximately missile safety.
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Second, as an immediate question of military planning based on capabilities either in existence or under development. In both cases there was some confusion over timeframes and the mix of capabilities that would be available at any moment. The latter debate was the major one. It involved the military services and influential civilians. The Air Force was lobbying for defence resources to be devoted to airpower, while the Navy and Army were anxious lest over-reliance on atom bombs resulted in the neglect of provisions for traditional forms of warfare.
The problem for the Americans was how to turn this defeat into surrender. The problem for the Japanese, once they recognized that there was no path left to victory, was how to surrender under the most favourable political conditions. The Japanese leadership's unwillingness to surrender in 1945, despite the blatant hopelessness of the position, was not so much based on a lingering sense of glory and honour as on a deep sense that the constitutional essence of Japan, embodied in the personage of the Emperor, was at stake.
If the need to ensure that some atom bombs got through had to be balanced with the need to use available supply in an Offence and Defence 31 economical fashion, then the most likely form of attack would consist of a fleet of bombers, most armed with conventional explosives and a few with atom bombs. This would increase the chances of each atom bomb reaching its target, but at the cost of mounting an attack of World War II dimensions. 29 And in this huge attack it would be necessary to ensure that many atom bombs reached their targets.