By Pietro Grilli di Cortona, Cecilia Manzi, Aline Pennisi, Federica Ricca, Bruno Simeone
This monograph deals a scientific quantitative method of the research, assessment, and layout of electoral platforms. this day, electoral reform is of outrage to child democracies in addition to many elderly ones. The authors use mathematical types and automated tactics, whilst attainable, to resolve a number of the difficulties that come up within the comparability of latest platforms in addition to within the building of recent ones. One virtue of the e-book is the emphasis on unmarried- and multiple-criteria optimization equipment. This robust software equipment might help political researchers overview and select a suitable electoral procedure. A basic formal version is incorporated in addition to a coding process to explain, determine, and classify electoral platforms. overview standards and the corresponding functionality signs are mentioned.
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Additional info for Evaluation and Optimization of Electoral Systems
In fact, a real political system does not necessarily consist of parties having relatively equal strengths. Let Na be the general indicator for the number of parties in a political system, where vote shares are considered Now, when a — 2 this is the Laakso-Taagepera index; when a approaches 1, this indicator approximates another index called the Wildgen index (1971) which is based on the concept of entropy and is precisely equal to Wildgen's index is also known as the hyperfractionalization index since it is even more sensitive than the others to the number of parties n.
Higher levels of electoral participation have been registered in countries where there is a unique Chamber. The reason might be that a unique Chamber concentrates the executive power making any elector aware of the decision-making process and those responsible. In some countries vote is compulsory, and in this case there is no point in measuring electoral participation. However, when the penalties for not voting are weak, abstention can still exist. Many other factors could be taken into consideration; however, it is already clear that the kind of electoral system adopted cannot be ignored in the analysis of electoral participation.
Another example is provided by systems where ranking ballots are adopted. Here the electoral engine directly yields a set of elected candidates. This set induces an assignment of seats to parties, since each candidate runs for exactly one party. In other cases, the two tasks are performed sequentially. Consider, for instance, systems where lists are allowed to contain several candidates. Such lists are preliminarily ordered by the corresponding parties in such a way that if a list gets s seats then the first s candidates in the list are selected (in this case one speaks of blocked lists).