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By Hans A. Krebs, H.L. Kornberg, K. Burton

This survey used to be written on the invitation of the Editors of the "Ergebnisse der Physiologie". Its goal is to provide the newer growth within the comprehendĀ­ ledge of organic power modifications. because it used to be meant for a overview magazine, the reader used to be taken to be accustomed to the basics of present biochemistry, as defined within the typical textbooks. It was once no longer the thing to bring together an in depth choice of proof. The survey is restricted to elements of wider curiosity, and the most emphasis has been at the basic unifying rules which emerge from the nice mass of specified obĀ­ servations. the item is reprinted within the desire that it can be important during this shape to complicated scholars and learn employees in biochemistry and comparable matters. H. A. KREBS H. L. KORNBERG 2 desk of Contents web page 1. the major place of Adenosine Triphosphate . . . 213 2. the 3 levels of food Degradation. . . . 213 three. The Energy-Yielding Steps of middleman Metabolism 215 four. The Build-up of Phosphate Bond strength ..... 221 five. substitute Pathways of Anaerobic Fermentation in Micro-organisms. 227 6. substitute Pathways of Glucose Oxidation . 237 7. the trail of Carbon in Photosynthesis . . . 243 eight. usage of strength for Chemical Syntheses 249 nine. keep watch over of Energy-Supplying strategies . . . 262 10. a distinct characteristic of ATP as an strength shop. 271 eleven. Evolution of strength reworking Mechanisms 273 Appendix via ok. BURTON unfastened power facts of organic curiosity 27S References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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L. KORNBERG: Energy Transformations in Living Matter (8, 12) to (8, 14): pyruvate + TPNHs + CO 2 -+ malate + TPN (catalysed by the "malic enzyme" of OCHOA, MEHLER & KORNBERG 1948), (8,12) malate + DPN -+ oxaloacetate + DPNH 2 (catalysed by malic dehydrogenase), (8, 13) oxaloacetate + ITP -+ phosphopyruvate + CO 2 + IDP [catalysed by the enzyme of UTTER and KURAHASHI 1954). (8,14) The sum of reactions (8, 12) to (8, 14) is pyruvate + TPNH 2 + DPN + ITP-+phosphopyruvate + DPNH 2 + TPN +IDP. (8,15) Since the oxidation-reduction potential of the DPNH2/DPN and TPNH 2 / TPN systems are virtually identical, and since there are no.

Some of the reactions are reversible, and the direction in photosynthesis is the reverse of that in glycolysis or of that in the pentose phosphate cycle. The first of the two reactions of carbon compounds specific for photosynthetic arid autotrophic organisms is the phosphorylation of ribulose 5-phosphate to form ribulose 1: 5-diphosphate [WEISSBACH, SMYRNIOTIS and HORECKER 16* 244 H. A. KREBS and H. L. KORNBERG: Energy Transformations in Living Matter 1954(a), (b), WEISSBACH HURWITZ 1956]. 1955, HURWITZ et aI.

As seen from Fig. 14, the reactions proceeding from erythrose 4-phosphate and phosphopyruvate include a hydrogenation by TPNH 2 (for the reduction of dehydroshikimic acid), a decarbox:ylation, and several condensations and rearrangements, with and without the elimination of water or phosphate. The balance equation, starting from erythrose 4-phosphate, phosphopyruvic acid and glutamate is a follows: + 2 phosphopyruvate + glutamate + TPNH z -* phenylalanine + ex-ketoglutarate + COz + 5 HzO + TPN + 3 P.

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