By Ken Arnold
Ken Arnold is an skilled embedded platforms dressmaker and president of HiTech gear, Inc., an embedded platforms layout enterprise situated in San Diego, California. He additionally teaches classes in embedded and software program layout on the college of California-San Diego. offers the reader an built-in hardware/software method of embedded controller designStresses a "worst case" layout strategy for the tough environments during which embedded platforms are frequently usedIncludes layout examples to make very important techniques come alive
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The following instructions are examples of data movement instructions that utilize direct addressing: MOV 24h,A ;move a c c u m u l a t o r l o c a t i o n 24h MOV ;move l o c a t i o n l o c a t i o n 7Ch 0Fh c o n t e n t s to i n t e r n a l P U S H 22h ;PUSH l o c a t i o n 22h c o n t e n t s o n t o the s t a c k POP 4 E h ;POP the top of the stack 7Ch,0Fh contents to i n t e r n a l into l o c a t i o n RAM RAM 4Eh The following instructions are examples of data movement instructions, which utilize register addressing: MOV R0,49h ;move location 49h to r e g i s t e r MOV R2,A ;move a c c u m u l a t o r contents R0 to r e g i s t e r R2 Note that in all instructions, the order of the memory locations in the instruction is always destination, source.
Exactly where the top of the stack is situated is determined by the value contained in the stack pointer (SP) special function register. When the processor executes a PUSH instruction like the one above, it first increments the SP register by 1, and then copies the internal RAM register specified in the PUSH instruction to the address pointed to by the SP register. In other words, the value contained by the SP register is a pointer to the memory location one byte below the top of the stack. The POP instruction takes the data at the top of the stack and copies it to the internal RAM location specified in the POP instruction.
Arithmetic (24) 2. Logical (25) 43 CHAPTERTWO MicrocontrollerConcepts 3. Data transfer (28) 4. Bit (Boolean) variable manipulation (17) 5. Program branching and control (17) Each of these categories is comprised of instructions that utilize mnemonics as shown below: Arithmetic ADD, ADDC, SUBB, INC, DEC, MUL, DIV, DA Logical ANL, ORL, XRL, CLR, CPL, RL, RLC, RR, RRC,SWAP Data Transfer MOV, MOVX, MOVC, PUSH, POP, XCH, XCHD Bit (Boolean) Variable Manipulation CLR, SETB,CPL,ANL, ORL, MOV,JC,JNC,JB,JNB,JBC Program Branching and Control ACALL, LCALL, RET, RETI, AJMP, LJMP, SJMP,JMP,JZ, JNZ, CJNE, DJNZ, NOP Direct and Register Addressing While the number of mnemonics is clearly smaller in number than the total of 111 instructions, a given mnemonic may be used in several different ways to make up a valid 8051 instruction.