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By Sarah Birch (auth.)

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This will involve developing coding schemes for each of the electoral institution dimensions to be examined, as well as measures of the dependent variables of interest. The second part of the study will examine the extent to which electoral systems have succeeded in including the citizenry in the electoral process. Citizens are included first and foremost by voting, and Chapter 3 will analyse the institutional and other factors that influence electoral participation in the post-communist region.

Maj. 1 31 (Continued) Country Size of chamber Number of districts (lower + upper tiers) Number Proporof upper- tionPR tier seats seats (%) SinglePreferparty ences threshold inPR (first tier list PR seats)" voting? Russia 1993 Russia 1995 Russia 1999 450 450 450 225 + 1 225 + 1 225 + 1 225 225 225 SO SO SO 5 5 5 No No No Slovakia 1990 Slovakia 1992 Slovakia 1994 Slovakia 1998 Slovakia 2002 Slovenia 1992 150 150 150 150 150 90 4 4 4 Variable Variable Variable None None Variable 100 100 100 100 100 100 3 5" 5" 5" 5" None Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Slovenia 1996 90 100 None Yes Slovenia 2000 90 100 4 Yes Ukraine 1994 Ukraine 1998 Ukraine 2002 450 450 450 450 225 + 1 225 + 1 None 225 225 SO SO 4 4 No No Yugoslavia 2000 138 27 0 100 5 (districtlevel) No 8+1 (+2 minority seats) 8+1 Variable (+2 minority seats) 8+1 Variable (+2 minority seats) 0 Success requirement in singlemember seats Plurality Plurality Plurality Abs.

The post-communist parties were, at the outset of the transition, the only organizations that could be deemed 'true' parties with 20 Electoral Systems and Political Transformation well-articulated organizational apparatuses and wide networks of regional structures. Nevertheless, the general popular antipathy towards these institutions and the weak ideological commitment on the part of many of their leaders made most favour electoral structures that enhanced the role of the individual politician, such as single-member districts.

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