By Keith Wailoo
''Boldly and assuredly, Wailoo analyzes not just the function of physicians yet of analysis hospitals and pharmaceutical businesses. furthermore, he indicates how such things as race, gender, and way of life stimulated how physicians outlined and spoke back to the very ailments that have been referred to as into life via the hot applied sciences they employed.'' -- James H. Jones, American ancient Review
In Drawing Blood, scientific historian Keith Wailoo makes use of the tale of blood illnesses to provide an explanation for how physicians during this century wielded clinical know-how to outline ailment, carve out scientific specialties, and form political agendas. As Wailoo's account makes transparent, the likely trouble-free strategy of settling on ailment is continually motivated by means of own, expert, and social elements -- and accordingly produces not just readability and precision but additionally bias and outright mistakes.
Drawing Blood unearths the ways that physicians and sufferers in addition to the ailments themselves are at the same time shaping and being formed by means of know-how, scientific professionalization, and society at huge. This thought-provoking cultural historical past of affliction, medication, and know-how bargains an incredible point of view for present discussions of HIV and AIDS, genetic blood trying out, prostate-specific antigen, and different vital matters in an age of technological medicine.
''Wailoo's research breaks new ground... he makes use of a big selection of resources and kinds of knowledge to hold out an insightful research of a various pattern of 20th-century hematologic diseases.'' -- Robert A. Aronowitz, M.D., New England magazine of Medicine
'' Drawing Blood makes transparent that the excessive stakes interested in clinical know-how will not be simply monetary, yet ethical and much attaining. they've been harnessed to explain medical phenomena and to mirror social and cultural realities that impact not just scientific remedy yet self-identity, strength, and authority.'' -- Susan E. Lederer, H-Net Humanities & Social Sciences On Line
''Wailoo's masterful research of hematology and its illness discourse is a version of interdisciplinarity, combining cultural research, social historical past, and the background of clinical rules and know-how to provide a fancy narrative of disorder definition, analysis, and treatment... He reminds us that scientific know-how is a impartial artifact of historical past. it may be, and has been, used to elucidate and to cloud the certainty of ailment, and it has the aptitude either to constrain and to emancipate its subjects.'' -- Regina Morantz-Sanchez, Journal of Interdisciplinary History
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Additional info for Drawing Blood: Technology and Disease Identity in Twentieth-Century America
32 In the hospital, these poor shop-girls as well as their middle-class counterparts found a uniform and strict regimen and isolation from noxious social influences. ” Illnesses with a moral or social etiology (as Lionel Beale observed) offered physicians a chance to play out their roles, to reaffirm their identity by exerting moral pressure on the sick. ”33For family doctors as well as hospital-based physicians, a diagnosis of chlorosis suggested these technologies of moral management. Facing apparent upheaval in the lives, expectations, and behaviors of young girls, physicians seized upon chlorosis as a reliable disease category and as a clinicalrationale for transforming capricious and ill-fed girls into models of regulated, controlled, and well-behaved young women.
He will frequently hesitate to communicatehis suspicions to the parents. They would be shocked were they told that their daughter is a masturbator. The mere insinuation of such an idea would undoubtedly frequently drive the family to a more ’gentlemanly’ p h y ~ i c i a n . ”While ~ ~ some saw the biological and social scope of the chlorosis diagnosis as a strength, others-envisioning a more limited medical moralism-saw it as a problem. As David Rosner has noted of New York‘s hospitals in the early years of the twentieth century, ”efficiency” replaced moral guidance as a new hospital ideal.
In her 1926 text, The Adolescent Girl: A Bookfor Parents and Teachers, psychologist Winifred Richmond defined chlorosis as a typical disease of puberty. Years after clinicians ceased to 30 Drawing Blood recognize the existence of this disease, Richmond wrote that ”though rest, good food, and air are important adjuncts they will not alone correct the deficiency in the blood, and the girl in whom chlorosis is suspected should always be under the care of a competent p h y ~ i c i a n . ”Despite ~~ these psychologists’ observations, knowledge production about disease had shifted away from family doctoring and sites of moral management into modern hospitals and laboratories.