By S.J. Connolly
For eire the 17th and eighteenth centuries have been an period marked through conflict, fiscal transformation, and the making and remaking of identities. via the 1630s the period of wars of conquest appeared firmly long ago. however the British civil wars of the mid-seventeenth century fractured either Protestant and Catholic eire alongside strains outlined via varied combos of spiritual and political allegiance. Later, after 1688, eire turned the battlefield for what used to be differently Britain's cold (and so excellent) Revolution. The eighteenth century, against this, was once a interval of peace, allowing eire to emerge, first as a dynamic actor within the starting to be Atlantic economic climate, then because the breadbasket for industrialising Britain. yet on the finish of the century, opposed to a history of foreign revolution, new varieties of spiritual and political clash got here jointly to provide one other interval of multi-sided clash. The Act of Union, rapidly brought within the aftermath of civil warfare, ensured that eire entered the 19th century nonetheless divided, yet now not a country.
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Additional resources for Divided Kingdom: Ireland 1630-1800 (Oxford History of Early Modern Europe)
In 1630 the crown had commenced proceedings in Star Chamber against the Irish Society, the consortium of London companies that had taken responsibility for the plantation of County Londonderry. The charges were numerous: fraud in the negotiation of the patent, failure to provide glebe lands for the church, the unauthorized commercial exploitation of woodlands, neglect of building and other obligations in the towns of Coleraine and Derry, and the continued presence of native tenants on lands that should have been reserved for British settlers.
The most widespread improvement in incomes, moreover, came in Ulster, where clerical and episcopal incomes were already higher than elsewhere, thanks to the re-endowment that had accompanied the plantation. But it remains the case that Wentworth and his clerical allies had initiated a policy which promised, over time, to remedy what had been from the start one of the chronic weaknesses impeding the progress of the Irish Reformation. The problem was that, in doing so, they had once again cut across powerful vested interests, Catholic and Protestant, New and Old English.
During 1638, however, it became clear that the example of the Covenanting movement had begun to undo what he had achieved. In Down and Connor Bishop Leslie reported that 1,000 people who the year before had taken communion on their knees had this year stayed away. In Derry Bishop Bramhall recorded the even more alarming appearance of ‘anabaptistical prophetesses . . gadding up and down’. In addition substantial numbers were reported to have travelled to Scotland to subscribe to the ³⁹ The fullest account of the political crisis of 1640–1 is Perceval-Maxwell, Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641.