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By Reinhold Sackmann

With many OECD nations experiencing a decline of their populations, this bookoffers a theoretical version of dealing with demographic swap and examines diverse recommendations that societies have used to return to phrases with demographic switch. particularly, it info the several ways in which Germany and Poland have attempted to deal with this problem and divulges 3 conflicting ideas: enlargement, aid, and phasing out.

Coverageincludes:

· How and why demographic swap was once utilized in Poland to extend the schooling system

· The variance of linkage among demographic switch and progress premiums in several fields of schooling in a German Bundesland

· Modes of reflexivity and team of workers coverage in German and varnish municipalities

· results of demographic switch and varieties of coping on economic capability and unemployment charges in German municipalities

Coping with Demographic Change examines how and why societies deal with those damaging results. It conceptualizes the demanding situations a society faces because of demographic swap and specializes in the methods through which actors, agencies and geographical regions try and focus on this new situation.

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Extra resources for Coping with Demographic Change: A Comparative View on Education and Local Government in Germany and Poland

Example text

Similarly, Coleman (2006) sees im­ migration as the main solution for low-fertility countries. His data show, both in Europe and the US, an increase in immigration between 1960 until 1988, a peak in 1992 and a highly volatile development afterwards. Political decisions to place stricter restrictions on immigration were a major cause of the demographic slump in Germany in the first decade of the twenty-first century (Kemper 2011). Similar (demographically counterproductive) regulations were strengthened in most Eu­ ropean countries and the US.

His ideas partly inspired the Bretton Woods system, which ceteris paribus was successful in holding interest rates below the level of the thirties and thus paved the road for the ‘golden’ post-war decades from 1950 to 1980 (Reinhart 2012; Sbrancia and Reinhart 2011). Whereas Keynes thought that population numbers as such influence growth rates, recent empirical work has shown that the demographic transition influences growth rates through its age structure. Whereas in early phases of demographic transition the high proportion of young people dampens growth rates in the form of a demographic burden, a combination of declining birth rates, rising numbers of people of working age and still few people of old age produce a demographic divi­ dend in later phases of the demographic transition.

Christensen, K. (2003). It’s never too late. Science, 301(5640), 1679–1681. 1090529. Vaupel, J. , & von Kistowski, K. G. (2007). Die Plastizität menschlicher Lebenserwartung und ihre Konsequenzen. In P.  51–78). H. Beck. , & Ferguson, L. R. (1995). The stopping and spacing of childbirths and their birthhistory predictors: Rational-choice theory and event-history analysis. American Sociological Review, 60(2), 272–298. 2307/2096387 Chapter 3 How Do Societies Cope with Complex Demographic Challenges?

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