By Frank A. Clements
A complete A–Z examine of the background of clash in Afghanistan from 1747 to the present.
• Over forty illustrations, together with the Buddha statues at Bamyan, Kabul; Afghanistan's tough terrain; Taliban and Mujahideen warring parties; and Soviet troops
• designated maps, together with the humanitarian scenario in September 2001, provinces and significant cities, ethnolinguistic teams within the region, and the border with Pakistan
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Abdullah is a qualified doctor who speaks several languages, is fluent in English and French, and is typically dressed in Western-style suits. D. degree in ophthalmology at Kabul University’s Department of Medicine in 1983, and from 1985 to 1986, he worked in the Ophthalmology Hospital for Afghan Refugees in Peshawar, Pakistan. In 1986, he became special adviser and personal assistant to Masood, a position he held until 1992, when the mujahideen coalition seized power in Kabul. In 1993, he was appointed director-general in the Ministry of Defense in Burhanuddin Rabbani’s government in Kabul, a position he held until 1996 when Kabul fell to the Taliban and the Northern Alliance forces withdrew to northern Afghanistan.
This border agreement was subsequently repudiated by Afghanistan, as it claimed that the Pashtuns’ area should be part of Afghanistan. The question of Pashtunistan was to bedevil relations between the two states for decades and is still to be completely resolved. The tone was set on 30 September 1947, when Afghanistan was the only state to vote against Pakistan’s membership in the United Nations because of concern about the future of the Pashtuns in the border regions. In the following year, there were major signs of unrest among the Pashtuns in Pakistan, and on 16 June 1948, Pakistan arrested Abdul Ghaffer Khan and other Pashtun dissidents, which motivated Afghanistan to mount a media campaign for an independent Pashtunistan.
In June 2002, a loya jirga was held by President Karzai to form the Transitional Government, as provided for by the Bonn Agreement. The reelection of Karzai as president was the first decision of the council, but this outcome was aided by the fact that the former king wished to take no active role in Afghan politics and the former president, Burhanuddin Rabbani, had withdrawn. The compilation of the government proposed by Karzai for approval by the council was a compromise, for he tried to represent all of the various factional and ethnic interests in the country.