By Adam Torok, Balazs Borsi, Andras Telcs
This booklet builds at the premise that the effectiveness of nationwide efforts to extend spending on R&D may be approximated by way of the competitiveness of that financial system in overseas markets. construction on a couple of latest ‘benchmarking’ reviews that experience up to now purely ranked nations in accordance both to their R&D symptoms, or their performances in innovation, this is often the 1st e-book to supply a synthesized evaluation of the R&D competitiveness of nationwide economies according to either enter and output similar signs. numerous quantitative tools are used to mix those lists with a wide selection of R&D signs. The e-book confirms one of many significant premises of the Lisbon method – that Europe is considerably lagging in the back of its in a foreign country rivals in R&D.
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Extra info for Competitiveness In Research And Development: Comparisons And Performance
A typical example of the differences in the institutional backgrounds of policies on R&D and innovation can be found in the European Commission. The Research Directorate is responsible for ‘pure’ R&D policy with the Framework Programmes as its main policy tool, whereas innovation policy, with its tools outside the scope of the FPs, belongs to the Directorate dealing with enterprises, industry and information technology. Certain parallelisms exist between the two Directorates, and the fulfilment of the Lisbon Strategy goals belongs to the second one.
Both these kinds of advancement are partly independent from the potential success or failure of the innovation process which R&D may support. 15 The problem of R&D competitiveness has three levels of relevance. Competition in R&D takes place between countries (which is our main focus of analysis) in a partly abstract sense, because success in this kind of competition does not promise too much in terms of immediate pay-offs. However the long-term or strategic pay-offs can be identified in a more accurate way.
R&D policy is sometimes identified with science policy but, in any event, its scope is limited to the creation of new knowledge without any special emphasis on application. The monitoring function of R&D policy is therefore quite independent from performance on the market, and is mainly based on data reflecting the recognition or acceptance of a given result (‘R&D output’) by one segment of the research community. Such data are for example publication indicators or citation indexes. Innovation policy has a much broader meaning and scope than R&D policy, and it is more closely related to the modernization (or ‘evolutionary’) process of the national economy.