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By Harold Hanson Mitchell

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Measurement of the Basal Metabolism The apparatus and methods of procedure used in the measurement of the basal metabolic rate of man have been well described by Carpenter (1915), and those employed for laboratory and farm animals have been described by Brody (1945) and more recently by Swift and French (1954). References to articles or bulletins containing the description of some of the calorimeters and respiration chambers that have been used in this country and in Europe in the study of the energy metabolism of laboratory and farm animals may be found at the end of this chapter.

The data for the goose are not included in the averages at the bottom of the table. Group 8. Bruhn, J. : Am. J. Physiol. 110 (1934) 477-484. Group 9. The weighted means o f data obtained from P. E. Galväo. (Am. J. Physiol. 148 (1947) 478-489) estimating the basal metabolism, Q, of a 15-kg. ^* and from M. M. Kunde and A. M. Steinhaus (Am. J. Physiol. 78 (1926) 127-135). Kg* Group 10. Blaxter, K. : J . Agr. Sei. 38 (1948) 207-215. Probably the minimum basal metabolism has not been attained in other studies on sheep.

8 L ENERGY REQUIREMENT: THE BASAL METABOLISM The quiescent, yet wakeful, state is most difficult to impose on animals. Brody (1945) has had considerable success in training farm animals to lie down quietly during measurement of the gaseous metabolism by the mask and spirometer method. The activity of an animal in a respiration chamber is impossible to control and is variable in magnitude. Armsby (1917, p. " In meeting a situation of uncontrollable activity in experimental animals, periods of relative immo­ bility may be selected, or the animal may be measured while asleep, either a natural sleep or one induced by anesthetics.

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