By Francis J. Hughes, Kevin G. Seymour, Wendy Turner, Shakeel Shahdad, Francis Nohl
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Preface to the second one Edition
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Extra resources for Clinical Problem Solving in Periodontology and Implantology
In the United Kingdom, the overall prevalence rate of type 2 DM is approximately 5% of the adult population, but the prevalence in patient cohorts older than 50 years may be greater than 10%. One major concern regarding the current type 2 DM epidemic is that many of the cases (perhaps up to 50%) of this condition are undiagnosed. The complications of DM include increased cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, ocular disease, neurological disease, renal disease, and periodontal disease.
Particular interest in periodontal research has focused on the role of genetic polymorphisms of genes associated with control of the inflammatory response, such as cytokine genes. Genetic polymorphisms particularly of the interleukin1 genes have been associated with risk of periodontitis, although data from different studies are conflicting and equivocal. Knowledge of the role of genetic polymorphisms in many other common chronic diseases suggests that the effect of any individual gene variant is likely to be very small, and consequently genetic determination of susceptibility may be due to the combined effects of a wide range of different polymorphisms in many different genes.
In crosssectional and retrospective studies, this is calcu lated as an “odds ratio,” which is a statistical approximation to the relative risk of the factor. In epidemiological terms, the importance of a risk factor is determined by (1) the frequency of the presence of the risk factor, (2) the magni tude of the relative risk of the factor, and (3) the overall prevalence of disease. , ~15%). CHAPTER 4 • 30 P e R i o d o n ta l d i a g n o s i s : R i s K Fa C to R a s s e s s M e n t In studies of the main risk factors for periodontal disease, it is not always possible to estimate the magnitude of the risk because of the fact that many risk factors are not simply “present” or “absent” but, rather, may vary in effects accord ing to the size of the factor.